Étude de la rupture ductile d'un acier à très haute résistance pour des applications aéronautiques

Abstract : Aeronautical structures such as jet engines shafts, wheels, brakes or landing gears are made of Ultra High Strenth Steels (UHSS). Due to their hard martensitic matrix reinforced with second phase particles, such steels exhibit extreme mechanical resistance, their yield strength can overcome 1900 MPa and their ultimate tensile strength can reach 2300 MPa. Such materials are selected based on their tensile properties, however strain at necking (maximum load) is only few percent. Conventional certified design methods assume that failure occurs when a given point of the structure reaches this strain. Regarding UHSS this approach is very conservative; those materials are still able to bear large strains after necking start. The aim of this work is to define a failure initiation model able to predict ductile failure of such structures for extremes loadings. The ML340 steel, material of LEAP jet-engine shafts, have been selected for this study.Elasto-plastic behavior is investigated with various mechanical tests. Uniaxial tensile test were performed on round bars specimens, either smooth or notch, and flat specimens, either u notched or plane strain. Traction/torsion and compression/torsion biaxial tests were performed on tubes specimens. A simple isotropic von Mises plasticity model was found sufficient to describe mechanical behavior of this experimental database. This model was calibrated based on round smooth tensile tests, a longitudinal extensometer and a non contact method, measuring diameter reduction, were used in order to monitor strains. Hardening law was adjust with both sets of data using a reverse method, hence material striction is take into account during the identification. Identification method extrapolating plastic behavior based on tensile data measured before the striction begining is shown to overperdict plastic behavior.Failure initiation was also investigated through fracture tests. Every fractography display very fine dimples related to ductile fracture, however fracture apears to be very brutal and very few damage was observed underneath fracture surface. As a result an uncoupled fracture initiation model is proposed, damage indicator is driven by both stress triaxiality and a Lode parameter. This dual dependency is necessary in order to represent fracture for the whole database. Model parameters identification relies on the evaluation of local stress state for each test, this could be achieved with 3D elasto-plastic simulations. As a result fracture model was able to predict correct fracture initiation point positions observed on round tensile tests and flat u notch tests.
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Clément Defaisse. Étude de la rupture ductile d'un acier à très haute résistance pour des applications aéronautiques. Matériaux. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEM010⟩. ⟨tel-02103732⟩

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