Protection du contenu des mémoires externes dans les systèmes embarqués, aspect matériel

Abstract : During the past few years, computer systems (Cloud Computing, embedded systems...) have become ubiquitous. Most of these systems use unreliable or untrusted storage (flash, RAM...)to store code or data. The confidentiality and integrity of these data can be threaten by hardware (spying on the communication bus between the processing component and the storage component) or software attacks. These attacks can disclose sensitive information to the adversary or disturb the behavior of the system. In this thesis, in the context of embedded systems, we focused on the attacks that threaten the confidentiality and integrity of data that are transmittedover the memory bus or that are stored inside the memory. Several primitives used to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data have been proposed in the literature, including Merkle trees, a data structure that can protect the integrity of data including against replay attacks. However, these trees have a large impact on the performances and the memory footprint of the system. In this thesis, we propose a solution based on variants of Merkle trees (hollow trees) and a modified cache management mechanism to greatly reduce the impact of the verification of the integrity. The performances of this solution have been evaluated both theoretically and in practice using simulations. In addition, a proof a security equivalence with regular Merkle treesis given. Finally, this solution has been implemented in the SecBus architecture which aims at protecting the integrity and confidentiality of the content of external memories in an embedded system. A prototype of this architecture has been developed and the results of its evaluation are given.
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Salaheddine Ouaarab. Protection du contenu des mémoires externes dans les systèmes embarqués, aspect matériel. Cryptographie et sécurité [cs.CR]. Télécom ParisTech, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENST0046⟩. ⟨tel-02120616⟩

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