Comportement thermomécanique de structures intégrant des alliages à mémoire de forme : Modélisation, Simulation et Expérimentation. Application aux façades adaptatives

Abstract : The surprising thermomechanical properties of shape memory alloys (SMA) are harnessed in many engineering fields. This material is able to set a structure in motion upon a temperature change. Today, contemporary building facades must adapt to variable climate conditions as well as to evolving building use and occupancy. In particular, they must regulate light and thermal energy passing through the facade, with motorized systems, for example. We explore the potential of SMA wires for putting in motion solar shading devices in facades. The modelling of the mechanical coupling induced by the introduction of such materials in a structure has received little attention as of now. The SMA acts on the structure which in return modifies the SMA behavior. The first step of this work is a contribution to modelling the thermomechanical behavior of this material through the choice of a free energy, a dissipation potential and internal variables. We propose two one-dimensional models: a first monocrystalline model reproduces the material behavior in a simplified way, and a second polycrystalline model offers a more accurate description of it. An original temperature-controlled testing apparatus was developed in parallel. This led to a reliable characterization of Nickel-Titanium wires and the identification of the model parameters. In a second stage, these models allowed to solve elementary coupling cases (SMA wire + Spring, Elastic plate + Embedded SMA wire) for simple thermomechanical loadings and we established analytical solutions. The models were then numerically implemented via a user-material script (UMAT) for the finite elements software ABAQUS, by using a constrained optimization algorithm. This enables the simulation of the coupled response of, in principle, any structural system including SMA wires, connected or embedded in the structure. Finally, we designed, fabricated and tested different actuators in the context of sunlight control in facades. The working principle lies in using a temperature cycle which allows the SMA to deform the structure, and then allows the elastic strain energy in the structure to ensure the return to the original shape. The real behavior of these actuators have been compared to analytical and finite element calculations. We also performed cyclic tests
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Philippe Hannequart. Comportement thermomécanique de structures intégrant des alliages à mémoire de forme : Modélisation, Simulation et Expérimentation. Application aux façades adaptatives. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1064⟩. ⟨tel-02128845⟩

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