Tomographie par cohérence optique confocale en ligne multimodale pour le diagnostic non invasif des cancers cutanés

Arthur Davis 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Biophotonique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Skin cancer is a major public health issue. Among all types of cancer, skin cancer has the highest prevalence rate and the number of cases seems to be steadily increasing. Currently, the gold standard of skin cancer diagnosis requires a sample of suspicious tissue, called a biopsy, removed after a simple visual inspection of the patient's skin. Consequently, almost 60 % of biopsies result in benign diagnoses, and approximately 20 % of all skin cancers are missed.The research presented in this thesis revolves around the development of a line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) device capable of producing non-invasive in vivo images similar in quality to histological cuts. The designed prototype operates at a center wavelength around 800 nm with a spectral width of approximately 150 nm. It has been applied to in vivo skin imaging with an almost isotropic spatial resolution of about 1 µm and a depth penetration reaching 400 µm. This device could thus be used to improve the efficiency of skin cancer diagnosis by limiting the number of undiagnosed cases and the number of unnecessary biopsies.We then present a LC-OCT device system operating in two spectral bands centered around 770 nm and 1250 nm. The first band produces high resolution images (1.3 µm x 1.2 µm, lateral x axial) while the second provides enhanced penetration depth (700 µm). By merging the images acquired in the two bands it has been possible to produce images with both high resolution and high penetration. Moreover, acquiring images of a sample in two different spectral bands can give, to a certain extent, information on the spectral properties of the sample.Lastly, we present a proof-of-concept LC-OCT prototype coupled together with a Raman microscope, as well as some application examples. Raman microscopy is a spectroscopic method capable of identifying molecules present in a sample and thus measuring the "fingerprint" of a sample. This modality could then provide complementary information to the morphological images provided by LC-OCT about the biomolecular composition of the sample.
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Arthur Davis. Tomographie par cohérence optique confocale en ligne multimodale pour le diagnostic non invasif des cancers cutanés. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLO004⟩. ⟨tel-02134277⟩

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