Modélisation numérique du transfert sédimentaire en bassin versant montagneux fortement érodable

Abstract : In some small mountain catchments, extreme rainfall events can lead to strong sediment exports. This large volume of sediment can have an impact on the management of hydraulic structures downstream these basins. Today, to represent erosion processes on a watershed scale, distributed conceptual models are mainly used (CASC2D, SHETRAN, DWSM). These models are based on global erosion formulas and are validated for coarse mesh sizes (> 30 m). On the other hand, there are models capable of finely representing gravity erosion processes, by multiphase flows, mainly used on small-scale cases. This thesis work proposes the development of a physics-based model capable of representing both hydraulic transfers and watershed hydrology, gravity-driven erosion processes and sediment erosion/deposition in the hydraulic network. This will quantify sediment export at the outlet of a basin for extreme events, identify areas of high sediment production and sediment storage dynamics in the hydraulic network to facilitate watershed management. The first step is to evaluate the resolution of the Saint-Venant equations for run off with low water depths on steep slopes. To diagnose the different numerical schemes that can be found in the literature, a test case, with an analytical solution of the Saint-Venant equations, representing a straight channel on which a constant rain falls is used. This test case includes a dry zone upstream and allows the evaluation of the key properties that a scheme must include to represent runoff over a watershed, such as positive water depths, the transition between dry and wet zones, the balance of the lake at rest and the non-limitation of the slope. The Chen and Noelle (2017) scheme is finally chosen.Then, with the addition of a Green-Ampt infiltration law (1911), the model will be evaluated in its ability to represent output hydrographs, but especially local flow velocities over real watersheds. For this, we evaluate the part of error coming from the numerical resolution and the physical modeling of the friction of the water on the bottom through four experimental cases from the laboratory scale to a basin of 1 km².A gravity erosion model, based on Takahashi's (2009) detachment and deposition criteria, is coupled to the global hydraulic model by a bottom evolution equation. The evolution of the sediment stock in the hydraulic network is modeled using an advection equation representing suspended sediments in the flow. The classic laws of Krone and Parthenades erosion and deposition are used for the recovery sediment deposition in the network.The erosion model is then validated on the Laval watershed (86 ha), instrumented and monitored by the ORE Draix-Bléone, on several very erosive events. Finally, the model is applied to two basins that are not instrumented but are of interest to EDF, for an ovoid dimensioning study in the Durance valley. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator
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Florent Taccone. Modélisation numérique du transfert sédimentaire en bassin versant montagneux fortement érodable. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1040⟩. ⟨tel-02138069⟩

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