Caractérisation du fonctionnement hydrodynamique d'un aquifère karstique - Traitement du signal et modélisation double milieu des écoulements et du transport

Abstract : Karst aquifers are characterized by complex flow mechanisms induced by multiple porosities (matrix, fracture, conduit) which are responsible of the karst aquifer vulnerability to pollutant infiltrations. In the context of the environmental management, this thesis aims at enhancing the hydrodynamic functioning understanding of a karst aquifer. More specifically, the objective is the assessment of the multiple porosities contributions to the groundwater flow. Three approaches have been led during this work: (1) signal processing of the hydrodynamic and physical-chemical data by correlation analysis, (2) double medium modelling for reproducing the groundwater level (GWL) variations, and (3) double medium transport modelling for interpreting tracer test data. The double medium behaviour of the studied karst aquifer has been highlighted in this thesis with: a primary porosity (matrix porosity) supporting slow flows and representing the storage function and a secondary porosity (porosity of a fissured or a fractured matrix) responsible of the rapid flows and the transmissive function of the aquifer. This double medium behaviour has been interpreted as a spatially extended fracturation at the scale of the studied site (17 km²). This result makes a double medium approach relevant for simulating groundwater flows and solute transport (considering a matrix and a fractured medium). This double medium approach has succeeded in reproducing groundwater level variations marked by double-slope recessions and tracer breakthrough curves marked by a strong tailing, thanks to the matrix medium contribution. Moreover, the adjusted parameters of the double medium model indicate spatial variations of the underground media fissure/fracture density. Finally, this work brings a quantification of the exchanged flow between the two media during a recharge event (38 % of the infiltration is stored in the matrix medium), and shows the significant contribution of diffusion process to solute transfers in the matrix medium during the tracer propagation in the fractured medium. Then, the solute diffusion from the matrix allows reproducing the tracer tailing observed during tracer tests.
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Timothé Robineau. Caractérisation du fonctionnement hydrodynamique d'un aquifère karstique - Traitement du signal et modélisation double milieu des écoulements et du transport. Ingénierie de l'environnement. PSL Research University, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEM001⟩. ⟨tel-02144616⟩

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