Détection et segmentation de lésions dans des images cérébrales TEP-IRM

Abstract : The recent development of hybrid imaging combining Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an opportunity to exploit images of a same structure obtained simultaneously and providing complementary information. This also represents a real challenge due to the difference of nature and voxel size of the images. This new technology offers attractive prospects in oncology, and more precisely in neuro-oncology thanks to the contrast between the soft tissues provided by the MRI images. In this context, and as part of the PIM (Physics in Medicine) project of Paris-Saclay University, the goal of this thesis was to develop a multimodal segmentation pipeline adapted to PET and MRI images, including a tumor detection method in PET and MRI, and a segmentation method of the tumor in MRI. This process must be generic to be applied to multiple brain pathologies, of different nature, and for different clinical application. The first part of the thesis focuses on tumor detection using a hierarchical approach. More precisely, the detection method uses a new spatial context criterion applied on a max-tree representation of the MRI and PET images to select potential lesions. The second part presents a MRI tumor segmentation method using a variational approach. This method minimizes a globally convex energy function guided by PET information. Finally, the third part proposes an extension of the detection and segmentation methods developed previously to MRI multimodal segmentation, and also to longitudinal follow-up. The detection and segmentation methods were tested on images from several data bases, each of them standing for a specific brain pathology and PET radiotracer. The dataset used for PET-MRI detection and segmentation is composed of PET and MRI images of gliomas and meningiomas acquired from different systems, and images of brain lesions acquired on the hybrid PET-MRI system of Frédéric Joliot Hospital at Orsay. The detection method was also adapted to multimodal MRI imaging to detect multiple sclerosis lesions and follow-up studies. The results show that the proposed method, characterized by a generic approach using flexible parameters, can be adapted to multiple clinical applications. For example, the quality of the segmentation of images from the hybrid PET-MR system was assessed using the Dice coefficient, the Hausdorff distance (HD) and the average distance (AD) to a manual segmentation of the tumor validated by a medical expert. Experimental results on these datasets show that lesions visible on both PET and MR images are detected, and that the segmentation delineates precisely the tumor contours (Dice, HD and MD values of 0.85 ± 0.09, 7.28 ± 5.42 mm and 0.72 ± 0.36mm respectively).
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Hélène Urien. Détection et segmentation de lésions dans des images cérébrales TEP-IRM. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Télécom ParisTech, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ENST0004⟩. ⟨tel-02156747⟩

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