Retarder la transition vers la turbulence en imitant les feuilles de lotus

Abstract : Many passive control strategies have been recently proposed for reducing drag in wall-bounded shearflows. Among them, underwater SuperHydrophobic Surfaces (SHS) have proven to be capable of dramaticallyreducing the skin friction of a liquid flowing on top of them, due to the presence of gas bubbles trapped within thesurface nano-sculptures. In specific geometrical and thermodynamical conditions for which wetting transition isavoided (in particular, when the roughness elements characterizing the SHS are several orders of magnitude smallerthan the overlying flow), the so-called ’Lotus effect’ is achieved, for which the flow appears to slip on the surfacewith a non zero velocity. In this framework, we propose to study, by means of numerical simulations, the influence ofSHS on laminar-turbulent transition in a channel flow. To do so we have performed a series of direct numericalsimulations (DNS), from the laminar to the fully turbulent state, covering the majority of transition scenarios knownin the literature, as well as local and global stability analysis so to determine the influence of SHS onto the initialstages of the process. While the conditions for observing controlled K-type transition in a temporal channel flow arewell defined, this is not the case for uncontrolled ones. To this end, a novel theoretical numerical framework has beendeveloped so to enable the observation of natural transition in wall-bounded flows. This method, similarly to theFree-Stream-Turbulence framework available for the boundary layer flow, is capable of triggering uncontrolledtransition t​ hrough flow receptivity to a purpose-built forcing. Different surface modellings for the superhydrophobicsurfaces are tested. First, homogeneous slip conditions are used. Then, the spatial heterogeneity of the SHS has beenconsidered by modelling it as a flat surface with alternating slip no-slip boundary conditions. Finally, the dynamics ofeach microscopic liquid-gas free-surface has been taken into account by means of a fully coupled fluid-structuresolver, using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. We show that while SHS are ineffective in controllingtransition in noisy environment​ , they can strongly delay transition to turbulence for the K-type scenario​ . Thisbehaviour results from the balance of two opposing effects. On one hand slippery surfaces inhibit the development ofcharacteristic hairpin vortices by altering the vortex stretching-tilting process. On the other hand, the movement ofthe gas-liquid free-surfaces interacts with the overlying coherent structures, producing wall-normal velocities thatenhance the sweep-ejection process, leading to a rapid formation of hairpin-like head vortices. Thus, whenconsidering flat interfaces transition time is strongly increased, while taking into account the interface dynamicsinduces smaller changes with respect to the no-slip case, indicating the need for an appropriate modelling of SHS fortransition delay purposes.
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Francesco Picella. Retarder la transition vers la turbulence en imitant les feuilles de lotus. Mécanique [physics]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ENAM0014⟩. ⟨tel-02191508⟩

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