Two-staged local trajectory planning based on optimal pre-planned curves interpolation for human-like driving in urban areas

Abstract : Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) developments are conceived to improve transportation reducing accidents, transport time and fuel consumption, while increasing driving security, comfort and efficiency. The final goal of ITS is the development of ADAS for assisting in the driving tasks, up to the development of the fully automated vehicle. Despite last ADAS developments achieved a partial-automation level, current systems are not robust enough to achieve fully-automated level in short term. Urban environments pose a special challenge, since the dynamism of the scene forces the navigation algorithms to react in real-time to the eventual changes, respecting at the same time traffic regulation and avoiding collisions with other road users. On this basis, this PhD thesis proposes a two-staged local planning approach to provide a solution to the navigation problem on urban environments. First, static information of both road and vehicle constraints is considered to generate the optimal curve for each feasible turn configuration, where several databases are generated taking into account different position of the vehicle at the beginning and ending points of the curves, allowing the real-time planner to analyze concavity changes making use of the full lane width.Then, actual road layout is contemplated in the real-time process, where both the available distance and the sharpness of upcoming and consecutive turns are studied to provide a human-like driving style optimizing two curves concurrently, offering that way an extended planning horizon. Therefore, the real-time planning process searches the optimal junction point between curves. Optimality criteria minimizes both curvature peaks and abrupt changes on it, seeking the generation of continuous and smooth paths. Quartic Béziers are the interpolating-based curve algorithm used due to their properties, allowing compliance with road limits and kinematic restrictions, while allowing an easy manipulation of curves. This planner works both for static and dynamic environments. Obstacle avoidance features are presented based on the generation of a virtual lane which modifies the static path to perform each of the two lane change maneuvers as two curves, converting the problem into a static-path following. Thus, a fast solution can be found benefiting from the static local planner. It uses a grid discretization of the scene to identify the free space to build the virtual road, where the dynamic planning criteria is to reduce the slope for the lane changes. Both simulation and experimental test have been carried out to validate the approach, where vehicles performs path following on static and dynamic environments adapting the path in function of the scenario and the vehicle, testing both with low-speed cybercars and medium-speed electic platforms, showing the modularity of the system.
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Fernando José Garrido Carpio. Two-staged local trajectory planning based on optimal pre-planned curves interpolation for human-like driving in urban areas. Automatic Control Engineering. PSL Research University, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEM065⟩. ⟨tel-02194633⟩

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