Etude de l’évolution de l’état physiologique de L. lactis TOMSC161 au cours de la fermentation et de son incidence sur la résistance à la lyophilisation et au stockage

Abstract : Lactic acid bacteria, which have a significant industrial importance, are widely distributed in frozen or freeze-dried state for further use in industrial processes such as cheesemaking. However, stabilization processes (freezing or freeze-drying) causes different stresses which can lead to low survival rates and functionality losses of microorganisms. In this context, this thesis aimed at better understanding the impact of the physiological state of L. lactis TOMSC161 cells during fermentation on their freeze-drying and storage resistance, and at developing simple but efficient tools to evaluate the cells physiological state during fermentation for industrials.In the first part of this work, the influence of fermentation parameters (temperature, pH and harvesting time) on the growth and resistance of L. lactis TOMSC161 to each step of the freeze-drying process and storage has been investigated While the strain performance was not deteriorated after freezing, L. lactis was sensitive to the drying step and to ambient temperature storage. Moreover, the fermentation temperature and the harvesting time influenced the drying resistance of this bacterium. L. lactis TOMSC161 cells grown at 32 °C, pH 6.2 and harvested late (at late stationary phase) exhibited therefore both an optimal growth and the highest resistance to freeze-drying and storage at 4 °C. In the second part, a deep characterization of the L. lactis TOMSC161 membrane at a biochemical and biophysical level was analyzed during fermentation at different temperatures and was linked to the freeze-drying and storage resistance of starters. The cyclopropanation of unsaturated fatty acids of L. lactis TOMSC161 during fermentation was correlated with a membrane rigidification and allowed an improvement of the cell tolerance to freeze-drying and storage. Conversely, cultivating cells at lower fermentation temperature than the optimum growth temperature induced as expected a homeoviscous adaptation as evidenced by lowered lipid phase transition temperature but did not induce any improvement of resistance to this preservation process.In the third part, the physiological state characterization of L. lactis TOMSC161 cells was completed by investigating at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels as well as the cellular oxidation state. The results proved that the freeze-drying process caused intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, responsible of degradation of the starter performance during storage at 25 °C. Furthermore, the cellular oxidation state decreased during fermentation and was explained, in the stationary phase, by a slowdown of the aerobic energy metabolism and the induction of oxidative stress responses. This initial “pre-adaptation” of L. lactis TOMSC161 during fermentation allowed improving their tolerance to freeze-drying and storage by a limitation of ROS accumulation through the whole preservation process.Finally, this work has been concluded by verifying the functionalities of starter freeze-dried in the optimized production conditions defined in this thesis during cheesemaking. Despite the freezedrying step, the technological properties of L. lactis TOMSC161 were preserved, thus validating the performed optimization.
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Helene Velly. Etude de l’évolution de l’état physiologique de L. lactis TOMSC161 au cours de la fermentation et de son incidence sur la résistance à la lyophilisation et au stockage. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. AgroParisTech, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014AGPT0050⟩. ⟨tel-02295558⟩

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