Imagerie fonctionnelle par ultrasons de la rétine et des fonctions visuelles cérébrales

Abstract : This thesis focuses on recent improvements in the functional ultrasound imaging (fUS) technique and their applications in the field of ophthalmology. Within the framework of a synergetic project blending waves physics, medical imaging, neuroscience and ophthalmology, fUS was shown to be capable of imaging and studying the visual system of healthy and diseased animals for the purpose of preclinical studies. To tackle these issues, constant upgrades in the fUS technique had to support the preclinical studies.An experimental set-up was built to image the visual pathway in three dimensions with fUS. Using a new imaging facility, fUS was proven to be feasible in real time and at high ultrasound frequencies such as 30 MHz. Interleaved sampling had to be implemented in that case. Furthermore, the a priori knowledge of the vascular cerebral architecture and the Doppler Effect were exploited to spectrally decompose cerebral blood flux and vessels according to their velocities and orientations.Leveraging these improvements, functional ultrasound imaging of rats and non-human primates was performed. Primate retina was imaged with Power Doppler, but proved to be too mobile to be functionally imaged. However, fUS has been performed on rat retina after 30 MHz fUS imaging had been implemented. The rat visual pathway has then been characterised with fUS. Some of its known features where highlighted such as its retinotopic organisation or the time response differences between some of its structures. The same set-up has been leveraged to map the cerebral activity of animal that underwent visual restauration therapies. These tools were then used to map cerebral activity in anesthetized and awake and behaving monkeys. Unique blood volume variations due to unique mistakes were detected. These tools were finally applied to two preclinical trials on a depressive state of the brain vascular contractility. Blood volume and blood velocity changes were highlighted throughout an acute and a chronical study.
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Marc Gesnik. Imagerie fonctionnelle par ultrasons de la rétine et des fonctions visuelles cérébrales. Médecine humaine et pathologie. PSL Research University, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLET011⟩. ⟨tel-02310602⟩

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