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Désordre et interactions dans les gaz quantiques bosoniques

Guillaume Berthet 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique atomique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Ultracold atoms gases are quantum many-body systems very clean and versatile which allow to study basic concepts of condensed matter in controlled media. In our experimental system, we work with 39 potassium atoms which are bosons and allow us to modify the interactions between atoms using magnetic resonances of diffusion also called Feshbach resonances. Our team is particulary interested in the physics of quantum gases in low dimension in the presence of disorder. First, we present the observation and study of the propagation of bright solitons, which are 1D matter wave with attractive interactions, through a disordered potentiel made from a speckle pattern of light. This study led to the first observation of nonlinear effects over the propagation of cold atoms in disorder. The limits of the experiment, especially in terms of imaging and magnetic field control, motivated the design and construction of a new vacuum chamber. The next part of the manuscript is dedicated to the description and characterization of the new experimental device, from its construction to its use for the production of Bose-Einstein condensates. The last part of this thesis is devoted to the study of Anderson localization of cold atoms in the presence of a constant bias force. Anderson localization is characterized by a suppression of conductivity under the effect of disorder. In the context of the cold atoms, it is explained by taking into account the wave nature of the atoms during the diffusion processes in the disordered medium. Even if localization is always present in 1D systems, theoretical studies predict that a constant force applied to the system drastically modifies the signatures of the localization (algebraic decay of the wave function) and can lead to a complete delocalization of the system. Our experimental study confirms the theoretical predictions.
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Guillaume Berthet. Désordre et interactions dans les gaz quantiques bosoniques. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLO010⟩. ⟨tel-02376597v1⟩

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