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Stéréotomie et vision artificielle pour la construction robotisée de structures maçonnées complexes

Abstract : The context of this thesis work is the development of robotics in the construction industry. We explore the robotic construction of complex masonry structures with the help of computer vision. Construction without the use of formwork is an important issue in relation to both productivity on a construction site and the amount of waste generated. To this end, we study topological interlocking masonries and the possibilities they present. The design of this kind of masonry is standard for planar structures. We generalize it to the design of curved structures in a parametrical way, using PQ meshes and the softwares Rhinoceros 3D and Grasshopper. To achieve this, we introduce a set of inequalities to respect in order to have a topological interlocked structure. These inequalities allow us to present a new result. Namely, it is possible to have an assembly of blocks in which each block is interlocked in translation, while having a subset — composed of several of these blocks — that is not interlocked. We also present a prototype of topological interlocking masonry. Its design is based on variable inclination joints, allowing construction without formwork. In parallel, we are studying robust computer vision for unstructured environments like construction sites, in which sensors are vulnerable to dust or could be accidentally jostled. The goal is to estimate the relative pose (position + orientation) of a masonry block with respect to a robot, using only cheap cameras without the need for calibration. Our approach relies on a classification Convolutional Neural Network trained using hundreds of thousands of synthetically rendered scenes with a robot and a block, and randomized parameters such as block dimensions and poses, light, textures, etc, so that the robot can learn to locate the block without being influenced by the environment. The generation of these images is performed with Unreal Engine 4. This method allows us to estimate a block pose very accurately, with only millimetric errors, without using a single real image for training. This is a strong advantage since acquiring representative training data is a long and expensive process. We also built a new rich dataset of real robot images (about 12,000 images) with accurately localized blocks so that we can evaluate our approach and compare it to alternative approaches. A real demonstrator, including a ABB IRB 120 robot, cuboid blocks and three webcams was set up to prove the feasibility of the method
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Submitted on : Friday, November 29, 2019 - 9:45:18 AM
Last modification on : Friday, July 17, 2020 - 5:08:49 PM


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Vianney Loing. Stéréotomie et vision artificielle pour la construction robotisée de structures maçonnées complexes. Génie civil. Université Paris-Est, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PESC1015⟩. ⟨tel-02385841⟩



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