Origine et transformation d'un système agraire au Sénégal - La zone des Niayes -

Abstract : A study on the agrarian system of the Niayes region, situated in the northern coastal area of Senegal, between Dakar and Saint Louis was accomplished, implementing historical surveys coupled with a hundred ones related to agricultural exploitations. About eighty surveys were used to help establish economic results. Main phases within the region’s agrarian system were distinguished.1.During the precolonial period, an economy of gathering (wine and palm oil) and a shifting agriculture with as basis millet and peanut in the South; transhumant stockbreeding system in the North;2. During colonization, market gardening became a source of income for Niayes farmers who, seen the area conditions, could not take advantage of the peanut boom of their Dieri neighbor. This development was also a response to cities’ increasing needs in fruits and vegetables.3.During the great drought (1970’s and 1980’s), the market gardening areas extension and the culture system’s intensification caused by migrants’ influx and thanks to the creation of a fruit-part-type contract, the mbeye seddo which allows sharing added value between the employer and the seasonal worker, the sourgha.4.For 20 years, the development of motorized culture systems, with an increasing differences of incomes between manual and motorized exploitations in one hand and the employers’ and family exploitations on the other hand.Within one contemporary agrarian system, we distinguished three main farming categories (family business, employers’ and capitalist ones). Within these groups, farms use manual, semi-motorized or motorized cultivating systems. The survival threshold (meaning the minimal level of necessary resources) was estimated for an average family at CFA 149’000 per working person and per year (227 euros).The first farm category is a food-producing system on short fallows with palm groves. With manual cultivating systems, it is possible for a working person to develop 800 to 1’200 m2 of vegetable basin (Niaye) depending on species to cultivate, with at best 2 campaigns per year. The income varies from 500 to 1’500 euros/working person/year. With combined systems (motorized drainage and manual water distribution), it increases to 2’500m2/year with also 2 campaigns per year and an income of 500 to 2’600 euros/working person/year. Complete motorization (motorized drainage and spraying water distribution, using hose) allows 2 to 4 campaigns per year on 3’000 to 3’500 m2/working person. Incomes vary between 2’000 to 10’000 euros/working person/year.Manual family farms or employers’ exploitations which hire few sourgha most face difficulties with an income barely situated beyond survival threshold (average of 260 to 300 euros/working person/year, sometimes 100 euros) on less than 2’000 m2/family working person. While appealing to sourghas a great deal, manual exploitations earn between 1’000 and 1’800 euros/working person/year on 4’000 m2 to 1 ha/family working person. Motorized exploitations (combined and integral) can use between 1’000m2 (combined) and 1ha/family working person (integral), with incomes varying from 1’500 euros/working person/year (family system with motorized drainage and manual water distribution) to 3’500 euros/working person/year (intensive and motorized capitalist system with 4 campaigns/year).If motorization seems tempting to improve incomes, though not deemed sustainable for the area (ground water overexploitation, various pollutions, and dependence to fossil energy), “race for motorization” brings about important income differences within manual exploitations and current social relationships, and added value sharing deserves review.
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Yohann Fare. Origine et transformation d'un système agraire au Sénégal - La zone des Niayes -. Géographie. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0009⟩. ⟨tel-02410143⟩

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