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Caractérisation de l'évolution de l'état de biodégradation des massifs de déchets non dangereux en post-exploitation : Application de méthodes géophysiques

Abstract : Storage is the most commonly used waste treatment method in the world because it is a simple and economical way to dispose of solid waste. Despite a national and European desire to reduce the storage of biodegradable waste, a significant amount is still buried, leading to the implementation of specific management methods. Formerly exploited as mere filling pits, MSWL are today complex structures whose objective is to reduce the environmental impact and energetically valorize the biogas produced by the biodegradation of organic matter. In order to accelerate biodegradation processes, a waste cell can be operated in bioreactor mode by reinjecting leachates to increase the water content of the waste. The challenge of the 2000s was to size and validate leachate re-injection systems to ensure optimal distribution of water content in the waste mass. Today, the question is to monitor evolution of the biodegradation in all points of a waste mass in particular to understand the effect of this management mode. Geophysical methods in addition to being non-destructive and spatializing have been used for years on MSWLs and could be sensitive to the evolution of a waste mass biodegradation, as has been demonstrated for the biodegradation of others environments. Thus the problematic of this thesis is to evaluate the capacity of certain geophysical methods to monitor the evolution of the bio-physicochemical parameters of a waste mass during its biodegradation. A first bibliographic work identified four electrical methods among the geophysical methods available to answer this question:•Electrical resistivity•Self potential•Time domain induced polarization•Spectral induced polarizationAfter this state of the art, the thesis work was separated into three parts. The first one was devoted to the implementation of the monitoring of these four methods at the laboratory scale under controlled conditions, the second to analyze the long-term geophysical monitoring at the industrial site of SAS Les Champs Jouault and the last one to evaluate the observations at these two scales. Finally, the conclusion presents the potential of time domain induced polarization method as the most relevant to monitor the evolution of a waste mass biodegradation over time and discusses its use in an industrial setting.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 13, 2019 - 5:31:07 PM
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Thomas Jouen. Caractérisation de l'évolution de l'état de biodégradation des massifs de déchets non dangereux en post-exploitation : Application de méthodes géophysiques. Ecologie, Environnement. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0010⟩. ⟨tel-02410246⟩

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