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Computational modelling of post machining distortions of aluminium aeronautical parts : application to thin walls

Abstract : The manufacture of large aeronautical structural parts made of aluminium alloys requires multiple forming steps (rolling, die forging, forging, etc.), heat treatment and machining. During these manufacturing steps, the various thermomechanical loads suffered by the part before its machining induce plastic deformations as well as modifications of the microstructure which are sources of residual stresses. In addition to these residual stresses resulting from the thermomechanical history of the part, others result directly from the machining step. Indeed, during this step, up to 90% of the raw material of a part can be removed using sometimes severe cutting conditions. Aeronautical parts sometimes have complex geometries with thin walls. Thus, during and after machining, the geometry of the machined part is significantly modified by the redistribution of residual stresses at work. These residual stresses, whether inherited or induced by the process, strongly influence the final geometry obtained and are one of the main causes of non-conformity of the parts with the dimensional tolerances of the finished product. This results in a significant loss for manufacturing industries. In this thesis work, we focused on considering these two types of residual stresses in a numerical model predicting distortions. We focused only on aluminium parts from the aeronautics industry. We have thus coupled advanced numerical fitting and remeshing models with existing industrial software to provide a new numerical solution, fast and efficient. Based on the assumptions in the literature, we decided to model machining as a massive material removal where tool path and interaction with the machine will be neglected. The numerical objective is therefore to propose a method that can account for the redistribution of residual stresses within the part. Each step of the machining plan is thus represented by a remeshing step where the "machined volume" will be removed from the mesh followed by a mechanical computation to account for the reorganization of stresses and the deformations they induce. This iterative process, carried out in a parallel environment, required many numerical developments. Thus, a new remeshing and repartitioning strategy has been proposed to obtain a mesh capable of capturing the residual stresses resulting from near-surface machining and to significantly reduce the calculation times associated with changes in geometry through cutting. A simplified linear elasticity model has also been added to the approach to reduce the numerical cost of mechanical computation and allow for larger problems to be addressed on computers of reasonable power. In order to confirm the results obtained by these computations, the simulations were compared with experimental results from the literature and carried out specifically for this thesis work.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 16, 2019 - 9:03:13 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02412961, version 1

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Pierrick Rambaud. Computational modelling of post machining distortions of aluminium aeronautical parts : application to thin walls. Mechanics of materials [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEM025⟩. ⟨tel-02412961⟩

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