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Modélisation unidimensionnelle du comportement d’une pompe rotodynamique en fonctionnement normal et accidentel.

Abstract : Conversion of mechanical energy into pressure inside a fluid -or inversely-, is necessary in numerous industries: transport, electricity production, air circulation... Rotating machineries are often used in these frames. They are constituted of at least one bladed rotating part giving energy to the fluid (the impeller) and connected to a shaft, which is entrained by a motor in the case of a pump. The design method of such turbomachines has evolved from the begining of the last century to these days. Nowadays Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD) local scale computations are used to optimize the pump components. Local simulation allows to obtain information on what is happening inside the machine in three dimensions. However, qualification of the local results of such simulations remains a challenge, mostly due to constraints on experimental technics. Additionally, computation cost of such local simulations is heavy even at the scale of the machine alone. That hardly allows the simulation of transient scenarii on whole and complex systems such as a reactor, which are studied in the frame of nuclear safety in particular. And even more when uncertainty propagation studies are intended, which involve a large number of simulations. In such a context, a model of an intermediate scale -between the global study of the machine using velocity triangles and local CFD computations- has been developed during this PhD thesis. The proposed approach consists in considering a mean stream line that is adopted by the flow inside each part of the machine, associated to a one-dimensional (1D) meshing. By defining main geometrical characteristics of the machine, it can predict its performances in terms of pressure rise and energy given to the fluid. Several turbomachines have been modelled using this 1D model: centrifugal pumps, mixed flow pumps and a radial compressor. Various working fluids have been simulated, such as water, liquid metal sodium and air non-condensable gas. Single-phase and two-phase flow regimes have been represented in those machines in steady and transient conditions. The model is able to predict performances of machines of various geometries in steady single-phase conditions with a relative error globally less than 15% for a large range of flow rates. The model allows also to detect the occurrence of cavitation for a centrifugal pump in various conditions of flow rate. It catches also pump fast startup transient dynamics in single-phase conditions. It subsists numerical difficulties when simulating the same transient in cavitating conditions. A pump modelled as described here can be included into the modelling of closed experimental loops or complex facilities such as nuclear reactors. This work opens up new possibilities to study accidental transient in the frame of safety analysis. Intented application prospects of the model are the modelling of turbines or multi-stage machines and the use of other fluids.
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Laura Matteo. Modélisation unidimensionnelle du comportement d’une pompe rotodynamique en fonctionnement normal et accidentel.. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ENAM0038⟩. ⟨tel-02428639v2⟩

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