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Caractérisation expérimentale et modélisation des transferts thermique/hydrique et de la croissance microbienne au cours du transport frigorifique de carcasses de porc

Abstract : The objective of this work is to develop an approach allowing to predict the evolution of the microbial load on the surface of pork carcasses during a refrigerated transport according to the operating conditions (temperature and humidity of the blowing air) and initial conditions (temperature profile at the outlet of the slaughterhouse cold room). Since microbial growth depends mainly on temperature and water activity, it is necessary to study heat and mass transfer the transfer within and around the carcasses. These phenomena depend on the circulation of air in the refrigerated vehicle loaded with hundreds of half-carcasses which makes the geometry particularly complex.Thus, this work involves various disciplines: fluid mechanics, heat transfer and predictive microbiology. The coupling of these three disciplines makes it possible to provide scientific answers as to the sanitary quality of the pork carcasses.By conducting experiments on a semitrailer loaded with pork carcasses on a reduced scale, the air flows could be characterized by 2D Doppler laser velocimetry in two air distribution configurations (with and without air ducts). In addition, local convective heat transfer coefficients could be estimated at the surface of different parts of pork carcasses and at different positions in the reduced-scale trailer. A simplified model of the airflow has been established, that makes it possible to identify the "risk zones" in the loaded semi-trailer (low air circulation and low convective transfer coefficients).Based on the results of the experimental laboratory scale study and those collected during actual refrigerated transport, the variability of the parameters characterizing the air circulating around the carcasses could be estimated. This information served as boundary conditions for a model of heat and mass (water) transfer within the most sensitive part at the microbiological level: the ham. This 3D model, solved by the finite element method, makes it possible to predict the evolution of the temperature, the water content and the microbial load (Pseudomonas) on the surface of the lean part of the ham for different scenarios. The results showed that if the transport begins while the heart of the carcasses is still warm (15°C instead of 7°C according to current regulation) the growth of microorganisms on the surface of pork carcasses is generally not more between slaughter and arrival at the cutting site.Finally, a field study validated the data obtained at the laboratory scale and carried out an energy study. It appears that whatever the percentage of warm carcasses in the semi-trailer, the cooling capacity of the cooling system is generally sufficient to evacuate the heat of the carcasses.This study has made it possible to develop a method that characterizes airflow and heat transfer methods in a particularly complex geometry. It showed the interest of coupling transfer models and predictive microbiology models. Experiments at the laboratory scale were built by reproducing the real conditions as closely as possible thanks to the support of specialists in the meat sector. Thus the model carcasses were made in molds obtained by 3D printing from X-Ray scanners of real carcasses. The results of this study are directly usable by the profession and the public authorities for the adaptation of the refrigerated transport regulations. The approach developed may be adapted for similar problems in very congested ventilated enclosures.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 28, 2020 - 10:48:14 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02457519, version 1

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Mouna Merai. Caractérisation expérimentale et modélisation des transferts thermique/hydrique et de la croissance microbienne au cours du transport frigorifique de carcasses de porc. Génie des procédés. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0014⟩. ⟨tel-02457519⟩

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