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Contribution à l’évaluation du risque lésionnel lors d’un contact prolongé à l’aide de la méthode des éléments finis. Application à l’étude de l’assise.

Abstract : The occurrence of Pressure Ulcers (PU) is one of the issues related to physical interactions between a human being and support devices such as exoskeleton. This thesis is part of a collaboration between the Institut de Biomécanique Humaine Georges Charpak and Clinatec which develops EMY, an exoskeleton dedicated to quadriplegic people. However, quadriplegic people are extremely vulnerable to PU due to their loss of sensitivity. The prevention, mainly based on external pressure, remains insufficient to avoid the development of Deep Tissue Injury (DTI) because external pressure doesn’t predict internal deformation endured by deep biological soft tissues. Despite the potential of Finite Element (FE) models based on MRI to estimate those internal deformations, their use is jeopardized by resources and time necessary to their implementation. The objective of this thesis is to improve the knowledge about internal deformations in the pelvic region during sitting, through the development of new methodologies to generate FE model based on medical imaging systems which could be used in a clinical routine and which could allow the study of large cohort of subjects. The experimental protocol proposed in this work provided reference data on the load in the sitting configuration and on the morphology of the pelvic region of 22 healthy subjects. It also enabled the validation of both a reference model and a simplified local model. The characterization of both the behavior of soft tissues and of the ischium morphology in clinical environment represents the major challenge to transfer this work.
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Aurélien Macron. Contribution à l’évaluation du risque lésionnel lors d’un contact prolongé à l’aide de la méthode des éléments finis. Application à l’étude de l’assise.. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ENAM0009⟩. ⟨tel-02466783⟩

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