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Prélèvement et analyse des composés organiques volatils dans l’air expiré : apport des microtechnologies et de la chromatographie multidimensionnelle

Abstract : Breath is of interest for medical applications such as screening, monitoring pathologies or exposures. Indeed, this sample contains endogenous or exogenous volatile markers and its sampling is non-invasive. Although the sampling is simple, the complexity and variability of breath explain the few tests authorized by the health authorities.This thesis focused on two analytical tools for the analysis of breath: a preconcentration chip and two-dimensional gas chromatography. These two techniques, little explored so far in this area, may be of interest by simplifying sampling and allowing a more comprehensive analysis of markersWork on the preconcentration chip has shown that micropreconcentrators manufactured in the laboratory sample and inject model gas mixtures and expired air samples with variability close to laboratory systems. In addition, our work has shown that these microproconcentrators have two major advantages in reducing the necessary sample volumes and integrating into simple, portable and battery-powered systems. In order to illustrate their interest in a simple real-world case, we used these microproconcentrators to study three smoking markers in the exhaled breath of three smokers and three non-smokers, and to track the kinetics of these compounds in a person’s breath. Finally, we performed preliminary integration work in dedicated samplers in order to exploit the benefits of micropreconcentrators for the collection of breath and attempt to obtain a single expiratory sampling.We then chose and reproduced a simple fluidic modulator architecture, relevant for miniaturization, based on a Dean's switch. We showed that this modulator described in 2016 was compatible with a thermodesorption injection and compared its performance to GC for the analysis of the same breath sample. This has shown that this architecture is of interest in modulating very volatile exhaled compounds which allows many coelution lifts. Finally, we showed, thanks to experimental designs, that the improvement of the performances of this modulator required a meticulous control of the parameters.Finally, we confronted our tools with samples of a patient suffering from a rare disease, phenylketonuria. Samples of urine head space and exhaled air from the patient were taken. The results, incomplete at this stage, are discussed in the manuscript.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02512281, version 1

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Thomas Chappuis. Prélèvement et analyse des composés organiques volatils dans l’air expiré : apport des microtechnologies et de la chromatographie multidimensionnelle. Chimie analytique. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLET035⟩. ⟨tel-02512281⟩

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