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Quelles modalités d’écologisation de la pratique des paysagistes-concepteurs ? L’exemple des projets de parcs publics de ces 4 dernières décennies. Le cas de 5 parcs marseillais

Abstract : In France, a policy regarding the preservation of the environment and nature emerged during the 1970s (ministry of the environment, legislation). Since 2004, when the national strategy for biodiversity was adopted, and when the priorities of sustainable development began to take shape operationally in the cities on the basis of Agenda 21, this policy has continued to gain strength. This has been in particular due to the impact of new legislation (Grenelle 1 and 2 ; Loi n° 2016-1087 of 8th August 2016 for the recovery of biodiversity, nature and landscapes, etc.), but also to scientific research in ecology (green infrastructure programme : Trame Verte Urbaine) and a widespread raising of awareness with regard to ecology. In a highly urbanised context, with more and more of the population living in cities, the urban environment, harbouring as it does a plethora of natural spaces with natural characteristics, and of a quite distinctive character, has become a favoured focus of study. Among the professions contributing to the enhancement of the urban living environment, the landscape designers, because their role generally calls for the deployment of plant material, are actors who are in theory in a position to give expression by means of their project to ecological and / or environmental imperatives (biodiversity, water management, etc.). The urban parks in general, and in particular those of Marseille, thus constitute an interesting topic of study to investigate ways of ecologization of landscape design practices, and have done since an environmental design policy began to emerge (1970s).This thesis is based on a threefold analysis focused on the discourse of French landscape designers, then of managers of green spaces departments, and finally inventories of the plant assemblages in 5 Marseille public parks. Finally, it would appear that apart from Gilles Clément – a key figure in landscape design – whose naturalist background is well known but requires discussion, the ecologization in the practices of members of this profession remains discreet, and does not sufficiently integrate the functioning of these urban ecosystems. If this aspect has tended to change over at least the past ten years, the fact remains that it is rather the managers of municipals green spaces departments, in some cases committed to the ecological management (part of gestion différenciée) of their parks and gardens, who play a role in driving change with regard to the plant assemblages in terms of both their composition and their appearance. But it is apparent that we are lacking today the expression of a landscape design approach that is capable of integrating, beyond the scale of a park, these same priorities, related as much to urban planning as to ecology. Thus the ecologization of the landscape design profession would appear to lack tools and methods derived from these two disciplines.
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Brice Dacheux-Auzière. Quelles modalités d’écologisation de la pratique des paysagistes-concepteurs ? L’exemple des projets de parcs publics de ces 4 dernières décennies. Le cas de 5 parcs marseillais. Environnement et Société. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0017⟩. ⟨tel-02530270⟩

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