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Ecosystem services and landscape : Interactions in a socio-ecological system on the periphery of Mexico city

Abstract : In an era dominated by strong anthropogenic transformations, the search for new approaches to reconcile human activities and natural ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. In this sense, the concepts of "Ecosystem Services" and "Socio-Ecological Systems" are increasingly used in different scientific disciplines and are taken into account in political spheres to draw attention to the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems. These concepts lead to the study of complex links between society and nature, where the spatial dimension and landscape characteristics have a strong influence. However, few studies have been applied in a spatial approach.This thesis presents a research on the spatial dimension of Ecosystem Services, in particulary those of the temperate forests of the mountains on the periphery of Mexico City. Ecosystems have an important role to the human well-being through many ecosystem services. These Ecosystem Services are the result of complex interactions between nature and society.The Central Valley (central zone) of Mexico is a priority area for biodiversity conservation due to the high degree of endemism of the fauna and flora species present. In this zone where several protected natural areas are located, a public-private initiative is seeking to create a new conservation category that includes the management of all these areas. This initiative is known as the "Bosque de Agua" (Water Forest). However, in the "Bosque de Agua" the spatial stakes between nature and society are subject to strong anthropic pressures which are due to mining and agricultural activities and to the urban spread of large conurbations. In this space, these pressures lead to the degradation of natural ecosystems. Research is needed to analyse the spatial dimension of interactions between nature and society, by studying the synergy between Socio-Ecological Systems and Ecosystem Services.The thesis introduces the conceptual framework used to study the links between Ecosystem Services and Socio-Ecological Systems. It is considered in this research that Ecosystem Services are at the centre of the "Bosque de Agua" Socio-Ecological Ecological System.In the spatial modelling section, four Ecosystem Services were evaluated (water supply, wood supply, food supply and local climate regulation).The results of this section include a map of Ecosystem Services by identifying hotspots of Ecosystem Services. These results make explicit in space, through geographically weighted regressions, the impact of landscape characteristics on Ecosystem Services.In addition, the spatial coherence of protected natural areas and the spatial distribution of Ecosystem Services were assessed in terms of area. The objective is to create a typology of natural areas according to the surface area of protected and unprotected Ecosystem Services hotspots.Finally, a third result relates to the perception of local inhabitants of the intrinsic capacity of the "Bosque de Agua" to provide Ecosystem Services. This perceived capacity was assessed through field photo questionnaires.
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Antonio Villanueva Villa. Ecosystem services and landscape : Interactions in a socio-ecological system on the periphery of Mexico city. Geography. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Español. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0020⟩. ⟨tel-02537053⟩

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