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Réactivation Hydro-Mécanique d’une Faille Rate & State ˸ Glissement, Sismicité et Évolution de Perméabilité

Abstract : This PhD thesis is dedicated to the study of injection induced fault reactivation using a coupled hydro-mechanical rate and state modelof a fault. Even though the principal mechanisms behind induced fault reactivation are well known, different aspects are not yet fully explored, nor understood. In the first part of this thesis, we explore successively the role of the injection protocol (in particular, injection maximum pressure and injection pressure rate), and the fault frictional parameters on the rate of induced events and their magnitude content, for different heterogeneous 2-D fault configurations. We first point out a temporal correlation between the seismicity rate and the pore pressure rate governing the fault. We then show a dependence of the rate and magnitude content of the seismic events on the injection parameters, as well as the existence of an important trade-off between them, which could not be addressed using the Dietrich(1994)’s seismicity rate model. Concerning the frictional parameters, we show that for the faults tested in this study, the ones having a more stable frictional behavior exhibit a lower induced seismicity rate and seismic moment released. In the last part of this study, the variation of the hydraulic diffusivity during fluid injection with shear slip and effective stress reduction is addressed. For this, we use laboratory injection experiments on an Andesite rock sample, during which the pore pressure was measured at two locations along the fault plane. In an inversion framework, we estimate the best model and the associated uncertainties of an effective diffusivity history that could explain the experimental data. Using this information, we could extend our hydro-mechanical model, which would allow the computation of pore pressure, diffusivity and slip changes along the experimental fault.
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Michelle Almakari. Réactivation Hydro-Mécanique d’une Faille Rate & State ˸ Glissement, Sismicité et Évolution de Perméabilité. Géologie appliquée. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEM065⟩. ⟨tel-02570431⟩

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