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Une agriculture transitoire au service d’une agriculture pérenne dans un front pionnier Saharien en Algérie. L'eldorado d'El Ghrouss

Abstract : Historically, the Sahara has undergone profound transformations, particularly in the agricultural sector. This is particularly true in the El Ghrouss region in the 1980s, which has seen an acceleration of agricultural changes resulting in strong territorial dynamics. A real pioneering front characterizes this region under the effect of the development of vegetable production under glass, which is a transitional production system allowing the extension of perennial agriculture in the form of palm groves. These agricultures are irrigated from underground resources forming an expanding "water territory". The objective of this analysis is the set of determinants of the Saharan neo-agriculture irrigated in transition, explaining the determinants of its territorial extension and leading to a perpetuation. Our thesis revolves around the triple relationship between the actors, the water resource and space. In the first time, we characterize the transient dynamics carried by different arrangements. In a second time, we interrogate the evolution of the groundwater uses according to the observed mutations and the territorial building. Finally, we analyse the various factors that allowed the quest for new lands: water, land but also public infrastructure. Our results first show that the arrangements between actors around transitional agriculture are the drivers of territorial expansion and the socio-professional rise of farmers. Next, we show the importance of understanding the practices and uses of water to assess the water needs of a territory. And finally, the analysis of the progress of a "pioneering fringe" has shown that it resulted from the interweaving of the three main axes namely land, water and infrastructure and that each of these axes combines both state action and private initiative. To conclude, we ask the question of the sustainability of this agriculture in full expansion in a context of fragile resources that is already showing signs of slowing down, weak economic regulation of market gardening production and social vulnerability.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02611590, version 1

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Farida Amichi. Une agriculture transitoire au service d’une agriculture pérenne dans un front pionnier Saharien en Algérie. L'eldorado d'El Ghrouss. Agriculture, économie et politique. AgroParisTech; Institut agronomique et vétérinaire Hassan II (Maroc), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AGPT0013⟩. ⟨tel-02611590⟩

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