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Analyse de cycle de vie de scénarios énergétiques intégrant la contrainte d’adéquation temporelle production-consommation

Abstract : This research work deals with the environmental impact assessment of energy. The current energy model, which supports the global economy, leads to major environmental impacts by contributing to climate change and resource depletion,and by degrading biodiversity and human health. The environmental impacts of energy systems are assessed, not only considering the energy generation phase, but the whole life-cycle of energy systems : from raw material extraction to end of life. As renewable energies are weather dependent, storage systems may become required to ensure the temporal balance between the production of energy and consumption when renewable energies reach high penetration rates. As a first step, parameterized life-cycle inventory models have been developed for the main energy technologies to produce orstore energy. Those models enable to account for the technological, spatial and temporal variability that can be important. As a second step, an approach based on times-series to model energy production as well as energy consumption has been developed. It allows assessing the energy storage needs induced by the weather dependency of the production and consumption.The global dynamic and parametric method to assess the life cycle environmental impact here developed has been appliedto self-consumption scenarios and then, to the insular territory of La Réunion. Those applications reveal that, even when accounting for the storage need induced by the weather dependency of the production, renewable energies present an environmental footprint significantly lower than the fossil counterparts they aim to substitute.
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Romain Besseau. Analyse de cycle de vie de scénarios énergétiques intégrant la contrainte d’adéquation temporelle production-consommation. Géotechnique. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEM068⟩. ⟨tel-02732972⟩

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