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Theses

Développement de systèmes miniaturisés à base d’aptamères pour la détection de biomarqueurs de cancer

Abstract : Common methods of cancer diagnosis are invasive, expensive and rarely allow early cancer diagnosis. The discovery of cancer biomarkers present in the early stage of the disease, well before the development of symptoms make them interesting candidate for early cancer diagnosis. These markers are still not widely used, particularly because of their low concentration in healthy patient samples, but also because of their lack of specificity taken individually. Nowadays, clinical analyses for the diagnosis are performed by dividing samples and separate measurements of the concentration of the various clinically relevant analytes. In this context, the development of devices for the simultaneous detection of these markers in biological fluids is a real challenge. In addition, the miniaturization of measurement devices and their integration on a chip opens the way to automated analysis units that can be transported to the bedside and meet the needs of hospitals for fast, low-volume, low-cost, high throughput, sensitive and specific analyses. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods for the localized immobilization of selective ligands based on molecular recognition (aptamers) on different microsystem materials for the simultaneous detection of several biomarkers. Aptamers are a new classe of synthetic DNA/RNA molecules, known for their high affinity and excellent specificity for a selected target or family of targets. They also have the advantage of being easy to handle at room temperature and easily regenerated after denaturation. Despite these advantages, very few publications have been published on aptamer-based technologies for the selective extraction and analysis of biomarker traces in microfluidic devices. The creation of such localized zones ensures the overconcentration of target analytes to improve detection performance.
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Samantha Bourg. Développement de systèmes miniaturisés à base d’aptamères pour la détection de biomarqueurs de cancer. Autre. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEC020⟩. ⟨tel-02879895⟩

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