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Identifier des légumineuses à graines productives en Europe par synthèses quantitatives de données à large échelle

Abstract : Several studies have stressed the importance of increasing grain legume production in Europe. To date, no quantitative data syntheses have been conducted to compare the productive (and environmental) performances of different grain legumes in this region. The objective of the PhD thesis was to identify grain legume species displaying high productivity levels in Europe. Three data sources were used on a large scale: statistical data, experimental data across Europe and other world regions, and food and feed composition data for grain legumes. In total, 29 species were compared on the basis of their productivity levels, and on their effects on the yields of the subsequent cereals. We estimated the interannual variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. We built a global experimental dataset including 173 published articles, 41 countries, and 8,581 crop observations. A first meta-analysis was conducted using this experimental dataset. Results show that soybean (Glycine max), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and faba bean (Vicia faba), display, in general, similar productivity levels, and sometimes higher, compared with those of pea (Pisum sativum) in Europe. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, we estimated that a replacement of 25% of the area currently under pea (Pisum sativum) with faba bean (Vicia faba), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and soybean (Glycine max), would increase protein production by +3%, +4%, and +28%, in Europe, respectively. A second meta-analysis was conducted using the same experimental dataset. Results show that the yields of cereals cultivated after grain legumes are, on average, +29% significantly higher than the yields of cereals cultivated after cereals; this positive effect is significant for 13 of 16 grain legume species. The effect of preceding grain legume cultivation decreases as a function of the nitrogen (N) fertilization rate applied to subsequent cereals, and becomes negligible when the mean nitrogen fertilization rate exceeds 150 kg N ha-1. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, we estimated that the expected relative decrease in cereal production, resulting from an increase in the proportion of a grain legume in a cereal monoculture, is partially mitigated by the positive effect of the grain legume on the yield of the subsequent cereal under low nitrogen input conditions. Globally, the PhD thesis identifies faba bean (Vicia faba) as an interesting candidate species in Europe, followed by pea (Pisum sativum), soybean (Glycine max), and lupins (Lupinus spp.). Lentil (Lens culinaris), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), display low productivity levels. However, these species are often promoted for their nutritional benefits for the human diet. Based on comparative insight gained from experiments in North America and Oceania, we suggest assessing the productivity levels of several vetches and lupins (i.e., Lathyrus, Lupinus, and Vicia species excluding Vicia faba), in future field experiments in Europe.
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Charles Cernay. Identifier des légumineuses à graines productives en Europe par synthèses quantitatives de données à large échelle. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA014⟩. ⟨tel-02888685⟩

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