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Faire la transition énergétique bas-carbone ou comment réaliser l'avènement d'un mythe ?

Abstract : To fight climate change and limit the rise in global temperatures, countries must reduce their CO2 emissions and achieve what is commonly known as an energy transition. However, this ambiguous notion covers various objectives, which makes it difficult to understand the challenges involved in transforming the energy system and further complicates its management. The aim of this thesis is to question the term of energy transition in order to propose a new approach to its management. We begin with an overview of the concept of energy transition, which involves both looking at its highly ambiguous definition and observing it throughout history, which indicates that the low-carbon energy transition will need to be handled very differently from in the past. In the second part, we analyze French attempts to steer the transition. Our examination of policies implemented to date shows that the French energy system has not really engaged in an energy transition that corresponds to the stated objectives. Based on the TIMES-France energy prospective model we then examine the impact of a carbon neutrality target on: the level of carbon tax, which will be too high to be acceptable politically and socially; decarbonization trajectories, which will involve a radical technological change of the energy system; and specific challenges facing France thanks to a comparison with the Swedish situation. In the last part, we explore new approaches to piloting the energy transition. Following a review of a proposal from a branch of the social sciences, Transition Management, we develop an analogy between the energy transition and the phase transition theory in physics, with the aim of improving control of the energy transition and enriching our understanding of this notion. More specifically, it allows us to put forward a set of taxes and subsidies evolving over time.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 13, 2020 - 10:48:47 AM
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Ariane Millot. Faire la transition énergétique bas-carbone ou comment réaliser l'avènement d'un mythe ?. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEM074⟩. ⟨tel-02897919⟩



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