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Caractérisation et optimisation de systèmes d'imagerie polarimétriques innovants

Abstract : Polarimetric imaging allows to measure the polarization state of the light and to reveal contrasts that are invisible with classical imaging systems.In this thesis we study the trade-off between the instrumental complexity of these imagers and their performance in the presence of measurement noise.The contrast that can be obtained with a polarimetric imager depends on its capacity to modulate the polarization depending on the observed scene.By comparing the contrasts obtained with an imager that can be adapted to a given scene and a static imager which polarization states are fixed, we show that the loss of contrast is limited and that in the worst case the ratio between both contrast is 1/9.In practice static imagers that are easier to build and operate can thus be a good alternative to adaptive imagers.The polarimeter's ability to modulate light polarization influences the measurement precision of its polarization state.We have studied the measurement precision of a division of focal plane polarimeter.The distinguishing aspect of this kind of imager is that a matrix of micro-polarizers is placed directly on the camera sensor which allows to measure a linear Stokes vector in one acquisition.We show that in the presence of measurement noise, the manufacturing defects of the micro-polarizers have an influence on the estimation variance of polarimetric properties and that this difference can be precisely quantified.Moreover, we show that it is possible to push the boundaries of this type of imager by doing multiple acquisitions and adding a retarder in front of the camera which allows to measure the full Stokes vector and to improve spatial resolution.We determine the configurations that optimize the measurement precision as a function of different constraints such as acquisition time, spatial resolution and the type of retarder.The possibility to choose among all these configurations gives to this imager the ability to adapt to many situations.
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Stéphane Roussel. Caractérisation et optimisation de systèmes d'imagerie polarimétriques innovants. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLO015⟩. ⟨tel-02920495⟩

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