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L'assolement influence-t-il la qualité des paysages agricoles pour les oiseaux nicheurs ? Estimations à partir de bases de données nationales

Abstract : The management of crop mosaic could improve the quality of agricultural landscapes for birds, and more generally for biodiversity. Knowledge is available at the field (crop suitability) and national scales (trend analysis), but few at the landscape scale. We therefore linked the French Breeding Bird Survey on about 500 landscapes of 400 hectares, with a high-resolution multi-years land use database. Response models linking birds to crop mosaics were set, based on the variations between separate landscapes (synchronic models), and the variations of landscapes from one year to the other (diachronic models). We found that the information on crop suitability did not allow for prediction at the landscape scale and that the synchronic responses were stronger than diachronic ones, sometimes opposite. We deduced a disjunction between the landscape quality for birds and the immediate effect of its attractiveness under crop influence. Synchronic responses were modest, and varied with the landscape and geographical contexts. They were more pronounced in complex landscapes with grass and hedges, and for farmland birds compared to the whole bird community. We found that the responses to crop diversity were positive or neutral. The interest of the models taking into account explicitly the interactions between crops allows us to suggest that the crop suitability is not invariable but depends on the crop combination. The signals detected by this study were low and should be interpreted as trends that do not allow advice in specific situations. However, the results challenge some simple models used to perform biodiversity assessments on territories or agri-food and feed chains.
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Christophe Sausse. L'assolement influence-t-il la qualité des paysages agricoles pour les oiseaux nicheurs ? Estimations à partir de bases de données nationales. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLA009⟩. ⟨tel-02923071⟩

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