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Nucléologenèse et régulation de l'expression de l'hétérochromatine péricentromérique dans l'embryon précoce de souris

Abstract : In mice, the preimplantation period is characterized by several events, the most important is the activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) taking place between the late 1-cell (minor phase) and late 2-cell (major phase) stages. Among the genes expressed are the ribosomal DNAs required for the formation of the ribosomes and the pericentromeric heterochromatin (sense and antisense RNA) important for the formation of heterochromatin clusters. It is known that the ribosomal RNAs are synthesized in the nucleolus. In the embryo after fertilization, the nucleolus is replaced by nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs). These NPBs then evolve during embryonic development to form nucleoli but the mechanisms involved in the formation of nucleoli remain mostly unknown. Moreover, there are very few data on the organization of ribosomal genes based on their transcriptional status (active or inactive) in embryos. I therefore focused during my PhD thesis on the nucleologenesis process and on the organization of ribosomal genes in the mouse preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, it is well known that the two parental pronuclei (paternal and maternal) progress asynchronously after fertilization, the pericentromeric heterochromatin organizing faster around NPBs in the maternal pronucleus. In the second part of my thesis, I therefore focused on the role NPBs may have in the organization of pericentromeric hetero-chromatin during development and on the contribution of each gamete.
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Maïmouna Koné. Nucléologenèse et régulation de l'expression de l'hétérochromatine péricentromérique dans l'embryon précoce de souris. Biologie de la reproduction. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA030⟩. ⟨tel-02924202⟩

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