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Physique quantique expérimentale à N corps dans des matrices d'atomes de Rydberg. Des modèles de spins à la matière topologique.

Vincent Lienhard 1 
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique Quantique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Rydberg-based platforms, involving single atoms trapped in arrays of optical tweezers and excited to Rydberg states, have recently proven attractive to perform quantum simulation of many-body physics. In this thesis, we first demonstrated the generation of arrays of optical tweezers fully loaded by single ground-state atoms. The trapping technique was then extended for Rydberg atoms. The latest are repelled from high-intensity regions via the ponderomotive force, so we created holographically dark regions surrounded by light to confine them. We also studied spin-spin correlations in artificial Ising or XY magnets, engineered by using either the van der Waals or the resonant dipolar coupling between Rydberg atoms. In the Ising case, we observed the growth of antiferromagnetic correlations during a dynamical tuning of the Hamiltonian, revealing an effective velocity for the spreading of correlations, and a typical site to site build-up mechanism. In the XY case, we demonstrated the preparation of a controlled number of spin excitations, and the generation of 1D XY ferromagnets and a 2D stripy order phase (ferromagnetic chains anti-aligned with respect to each other). Finally, we used additional exchange terms of the dipole-dipole interaction to engineer complex hopping amplitudes for an effective particle. This resulted in the emergence of an artificial gauge field, characterized on a minimal three-atom system, and opens the way to the observation of chiral edge states, a signature of topological insulators.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 25, 2020 - 11:44:43 AM
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Vincent Lienhard. Physique quantique expérimentale à N corps dans des matrices d'atomes de Rydberg. Des modèles de spins à la matière topologique.. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLO022⟩. ⟨tel-02949007⟩



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