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Optimisation du pilotage d’un parc diffus de ballons d'eau chaude pour la fourniture d’offres de flexibilités au réseau électrique

Abstract : In France, electric water heaters represent an important source of flexibility for the grid. This thesis stands within the scope of the deployment of innovative telecommunication solutions which aim to quickly and individually address orders to Joule or thermodynamic electric water heaters. Therefore, the approach consists in proposing a model of an electric water heater sufficiently detailed to allow an evaluation of comfort while saving the calculation resources. The model has a low unit calculation time and can be configured easily to represent the French stock in all its diversity using the French territory description databases (INSEE data). In parallel, a consumer behavior model has been developed to simulate annual hot water draws over short time steps. The behavior model, as well as the equipment, is representative of the actual stock in average, but also in their diversity. This stock is adapted to the optimization of thousands of electric water heaters to achieve flexibility objectives. In a second step, an optimization process based on the use of a metaheuristic algorithm by "particulate swarm" is implemented in order to develop strategies for optimizing the control of water heaters and to propose flexibilities to the grid while taking into account the discomfort of users. The realistic control configurations promised by the telecommunication innovations are tested for the flexibility they could provide to grid operators. Finally, the robustness of the obtained control orders with different drop-off scenarios is evaluated. All models and algorithms are integrated into Smart-E, the energy simulation tool for territories at CES.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 16, 2020 - 2:02:08 PM
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Baptiste Béjannin. Optimisation du pilotage d’un parc diffus de ballons d'eau chaude pour la fourniture d’offres de flexibilités au réseau électrique. Energie électrique. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPSLM010⟩. ⟨tel-02969168⟩

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