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Les indicateurs de biodiversité entre connaissances et actions : impasses, détours ou raccourcis pour les stratégies environnementales ?

Abstract : For twenty years biodiversity indicators have been elaborated at all scales of public policies. Our thesis proposes a strategic analysis of the design and use of indicators based on four case studies. Our goals are first to understand the strategic role of indicators at the interface between knowledge and action, and second to propose useful insights to researchers and practitioners who design and use biodiversity indicators in the field.The biodiversity indicators that we have studied contribute to at least two types of conservation practitioners’ strategies : strategies of intervention, which main focus is to help some actors to better integrate biodiversity in various collective action systems ; and strategies of positioning, which main objective is to modify power relationships in a way that benefits to those actors. In the current context in which scientific expertise prevails more than militant actions, biodiversity indicators are mostly used in strategies to reinforce a temporary disconnection between knowledge and action and to improve environmental actors positioning. The interest in using indicators lies partly on their ability to simultaneously connect and disconnect knowledge and action depending on the strategic needs of actors. Furthermore, conservation actors are confronted to a double objective : (1) to propose indicators that can be part of the existing action system and (2) that can modify this action system, by bringing new conceptions of biodiversity, new rules, new power relationships, etc. In this perspective, actors try to anticipate future evolutions of the action system. In our work, the mobilization of negotiation studies allows us to clarify actors' perspectives and to better understand how various action systems work. More generally, the strategic analysis of indicators that we developed in this thesis, inspired by management sciences, is complementary to sociology and policy sciences approaches on instruments, and more precisely on indicators. It underlines new aspects of the contribution that indicators can bring to biodiversity conservation.
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Suzanne Rabaud. Les indicateurs de biodiversité entre connaissances et actions : impasses, détours ou raccourcis pour les stratégies environnementales ?. Etudes de l'environnement. AgroParisTech, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AGPT0005⟩. ⟨tel-03001097⟩

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