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Le jardin « porte-paysage » : Rencontre des urbanités dans le détroit de Gibraltar (Tanger, Maroc).

Abstract : The thesis seeks to question the role of an informal garden, one that strongly conveys meaning, in understanding the relationship to the landscape of the people of Tangier. This interstitial garden would be not simply a recreational and decorative space, but also a landscape talisman. The object of the research is the study of vernacular gardens, sprung from a major urban phenomenon, initiated in the year 2000. A critical study of the local landscape, carried out through ethnobotanical, geographical and landscape observation of potentially coercive garden actions, is conducted in the current context of urban planning. In a way, the people of Tangier are walkers, surveyors, specialists of their environment. They derive a positive interaction with their surroundings in a metropolitan context: knowledge of flowers; resins; bees; wild animals; meteorological and geological phenomena. These are all heterogeneous elements that make up what can be called the landscape. This peculiarity of Tangier has allowed us to explore the urban fact from two angles. Firstly that of the secular city constantly reinvented in its territory. Then, that of the city as a contemporary reflection of modernity. The more global question underlying this research is: how does the garden induce a relationship with the landscape? In what way does the research carried out on an achetypal figure of the garden allow us to understand an extended relation to nature and the great territory? The informal and interstitial statuses of the spaces observed make them places of margins, of frontiers, which are precisely spaces of transformation and reception of otherness and not places of separation. The body of research is centred on the following question. How does the invisible, the ordinary, the "aspectacular" carry a form of reinvention of relation to the world? How does reweaving stories of gardens and gardeners allow us to conceive of a mode of relation to the earth that opens up other possible links to the living? How does the hybrid character of these spaces lead gardeners and those who are in contact with their skills, to deal with the instability of the contemporary world and to fit into the metropolitan expansion of the city? Through a series of actions, a range of modes of relations to the landscape is revealed in the study. The double temporality of the garden at the foot of a building is highlighted in this context. It is at the same time, something very much contemporary, linked to a rural exodus and a nearby peasant culture; and, to a certain extent, one of the prerequisites for urban construction, a "lucky charm" for newcomers. In this sense, the garden is the place of cultural continuity as well as a place for communities to participate in the construction or development of the city. The ethnographic survey and the importance given to land investigation, enables to envisage a new methodological approach to landscape sciences. In what way the method of reading the landscape is influenced by the characteristics of the site itself? In what way does it transform the person who evolves in it? The bundle of heterogeneous elements gleaned in the study, constitutes a semantics of the place, through effects of juxtaposition and a posteriori approximation. The tracking of clues and the capture of fragments are among the main tools of the field. Herbarium, photography and cartography are part of this documentary collection which constitutes an exsiccata whose thesis is intended to be the place of formulation and translation.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 27, 2020 - 4:13:10 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:38:11 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, February 28, 2021 - 8:13:29 PM


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Eugénie Denarnaud. Le jardin « porte-paysage » : Rencontre des urbanités dans le détroit de Gibraltar (Tanger, Maroc).. Géographie. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IAVF0013⟩. ⟨tel-03028570⟩



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