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Machine d’Évolution microbienne : une technologie millifluidique pour diriger l’évolution de communautés de microorganismes

Abstract : Microorganisms are at the heart of Earth’s ecology. Omnipresent, they have been playing a fundamental role in the evolution of life on Earth. Assembled in the form of communities, they present beneficial interactions that are essential for biogeochemical cycles, bioremediation, plants growth and protection, our health and even our survival. However, the synergies that these communities present are not extensively studied, and remain untapped, largely owing to lack of an appropriate technology. This thesis proposes a new technology, called “Microbial Evolution Machine” (MEM), using the driving force of evolution, natural selection, to study microbial ecology and take benefit from it. This thesis work allowed its design, development and demonstration of its application potential. The chosen approach, based on digital millifluidics, consists of using millimeter-sized droplets to compartmentalize and parallelize the culture, manipulation, and analysis of hundreds of communities, and to direct their evolution in an automated way. Its functioning and concept have been validated by a first concrete biological application, which demonstrates an acquisition of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations of Escherichia coli.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 19, 2021 - 3:16:59 PM
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Wilfried Sire. Machine d’Évolution microbienne : une technologie millifluidique pour diriger l’évolution de communautés de microorganismes. Chimie-Physique [physics.chem-ph]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPSLS029⟩. ⟨tel-03167957⟩

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