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Urbanisme rural sous influence métropolitaine. Ressources et épreuves des pratiques planificatrices locales en Ile-de-France et en Loire-Atlantique

Abstract : The rural territories under metropolitan influence concentrate many issues in terms of the production of housing and the preservation of agricultural and natural areas. They are the subject of public policies focused on urban sprawl and their consequences: loss of biodiversity, land consumption, commuting, degradation of landscape. Over the last twenty years, successive government policies have fostered rural municipalities to transfer urban planning power to the intermunicipal level. These policies aim to consider land-use planning at another scale, and to mutualize the low human and financial resources at the municipal level. However, elected officials in rural municipalities mostly prefer to maintain their urban planning power, that is to say the right and responsibility to develop their municipality through various tools (local land-use plan, development and building permits, pre-emptive right). The role played by decisions taken by inter-municipal services, the trade-offs made by private planners, the transition from regulatory planning to project planning are issues that question land-use planning in rural municipalities.This research is focused on local regulatory writing practices, the type of adaptations and the influence of local actors in urban planning in rural communes. How are territories that are less dense but under metropolitan influence redefined locally through the urban plan? To address these issues, a quantitative and qualitative analysis is proposed in an approach that brings together the fields of legal sociology, urban sociology, and the sociology of public action. Two field studies are chosen to observe the trade-offs in terms of urbanization made in sparsely populated municipalities but under demographic and land pressure: the Paris and the Nantes regions.The research analyses the regulatory making of future urbanization in rural municipalities under metropolitan influence. It shows the mobilization of regulatory tools by local stakeholders (elected officials, public planners, private urban and building developers) and its importance in the orientation of urbanization. It highlights specific planning practices in the rural municipalities studied: a transfer of urbanization that scatters beyond the supposed areas of influence; a programming of urban development that frequently evolves according to land opportunities and initiatives of private developers; local decisions that strongly influence urbanization processes contrasting with a "laissez-faire" approach which frequently characterized rural municipalities.
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Camille Le Bivic. Urbanisme rural sous influence métropolitaine. Ressources et épreuves des pratiques planificatrices locales en Ile-de-France et en Loire-Atlantique. Environnement et Société. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASB020⟩. ⟨tel-03181151⟩

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