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La fabrique des paysages et des savoir-faire agroforestiers dans le bassin francilien : acteurs, processus et projets

Abstract : Faced with the environmental and climatic crisis, practices based on the management of ecological processes are opening up a new horizon for agriculture. The current challenge of agroforestry, based on associations of trees, crops and/or animals, is no longer limited to production alone, but also affects its sustainability and in particular the provision of ecosystem services and the food resilience of territories. However, these agroecological practices cannot result from the application of technical recipes. Can farmers’ naturalistic and agroecological knowledge of landscapes, become a vector for the transmission of agroforestry practices mainly through neighborhood effect and collective learning ? A critical study of the methods and mechanisms of learning, transmission and support of agroforestry practices in the Paris Basin is carried out through a transdisciplinary, ethno-geographic and pragmatic approach. The stories of their agroecological trajectories are retraced through ethnographic investigation and documentary collection from the field (photography, drawing of farmers, project plan). A typology of the different forms of agroforestry landscapes (intra-plot tree lines, diversified hedgerows gridding, etc.) and the range of ecological and diversification knowledge associated with them is proposed. In contrast, the mistrust of trees among some soil conservation farmers is identified. Secondly, the survey on the methods of support by stakeholders in territorial development (farmers, landowners, agricultural development associations, agents of regional nature parks and communities of municipalities), sheds light on conflicts and alliances between actors. The tools and collective learning processes of this outside agroecological university are highlighted through the chronicles of farmers' collective workshops and participatory research projects around the heritage of locally adapted seeds and woody plants (ecological survey, botanical index, reading and landscape design, project and pruning workshops, participatory selection). This work offers a synthesis of the brakes (the long time, the lack of local references and management know-how, the tree in the rural lease). And the conditions of transmission of agroforestry practices (pioneering attitudes, empirical and transversal approaches, involvement of territorial actors) are articulated between different scales: from the plot to the plain, to the community of actors in the large landscape. Finally, this thesis identifies a set of updating of living heritage which, through the agro-ecosystem benefits and the local food systems resulting from these new agricultural landscapes; could become the basis of a local project guaranteeing the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the territory.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 7, 2021 - 12:18:19 PM
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Clémence Bardaine. La fabrique des paysages et des savoir-faire agroforestiers dans le bassin francilien : acteurs, processus et projets. Ecologie, Environnement. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IAVF0021⟩. ⟨tel-03191613⟩



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