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Impact de la déficience en acides aminés indispensables sur le métabolisme protéique et énergétique, et identification de signatures métaboliques

Abstract : The availability of protein sources for human nutri-tion is a major concern due to global demographics, economics and nutritional transitions. Protein intakes must cover the need for nine indispensable amino acids (IAA). It is important that this need is met in order to avoid situations of protein and energy me-tabolism imbalance. Various studies have been de-veloped to determine this need: nitrogen balance, the factorial method, and methods using stable iso-topes. However, these methods are difficult and invasive, and the obtained values of needs present significant differences. It is therefore necessary to develop more precise and non-invasive approaches, such as metabolomics, as recommended by the FAO.The objectives of this thesis are to assess the impact of protein and IAA (lysine and threonine) deficiency on protein and energy metabolism and to identify markers of deficiency for these two amino acids in the growing rat. Severe levels of deficiency (85%; 75%) in protein and lysine and threonine decrease weight and lean mass and increase food intake. These effects are associated with a decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in energy metabolism in low protein diets. These effects seems to be mediated by FGF21. Analyses of metabolomics in urine show that variations in pipecolate and taurine indicate lysine and threonine deficiencies, respectively.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 9, 2021 - 1:58:08 PM
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Joanna Moro. Impact de la déficience en acides aminés indispensables sur le métabolisme protéique et énergétique, et identification de signatures métaboliques. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASB001⟩. ⟨tel-03194231⟩

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