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Résilience du microbiote ruminal : influence de la source d’énergie alimentaire et du phénotype chez la chèvre et la vache

Abstract : A better understanding of the relationship between the host animal and its ruminal microbiota would be the first step to optimize the balance between the use of fiber in ruminant feed and methane production. Two elements of this relationship were studied in this thesis: (1) the structural resilience of the microbiota after a ruminal ecosystem disturbance depending on the dietary energy source, and (2) the microbiota host specificity linked to rumen input and output flows. An innovative procedure of synchronization was developed consisting of emptying, pooling across animals and refiling rumens with the mixed rumen contents. This creates a ruminal ecosystem disturbance and provides the same microbiota to all animals. This procedure was used in 3 experiments on 12 dry goats, 10 lactating goats and 6 dry cows. Bacteria and archaea communities were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rumen microbiota evolved towards a different composition from the one before synchronization in the 2 species fed with a high fiber content diet. On the other hand, with diets rich in fast fermentable carbohydrates or starch, the microbiota of the 2 species go back to compositions close to the initial one before synchronization. Thus, the dietary energy source influences the structural microbiota resilience. A part of the microbiota host specificity is explain by the input and output flow of organic matter in the rumen.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03202286
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Submitted on : Monday, April 19, 2021 - 4:50:07 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03202286, version 1

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Pierre Gomes. Résilience du microbiote ruminal : influence de la source d’énergie alimentaire et du phénotype chez la chèvre et la vache. Interactions entre organismes. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASA012⟩. ⟨tel-03202286⟩

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