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Conception des bâtiments assurant leur réversibilité, leur déconstruction et leur réemploi, méthodologie de suivi et évaluation environnementale sur les cycles de vie

Abstract : In a context of strong environmental pressure in which the construction sector has the greatestimpact, the reuse of the load-bearing elements is the most promising as it significantly avoidswaste production, preserves natural resources and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by cuttingdown on embodied energy.This thesis consequently covers three main areas of research:1. Improvement of structural design through expedient typologies by defining the DfReu(Design for Reuse) in order to anticipate the use of load-bearing elements (vertical andhorizontal), that can be dismantled and reused at the end of their service life to extendtheir lifespan, ultimately increasing the stock of available elements for reuse.2. Development of a methodology for the implementation of a reinforced and long-lastingtraceability centered on a materials bank with the use of BIM in order to secure all thecharacteristics, in particular physico-mechanical, of the load-bearing elements and tofacilitate the reuse processes as well as the commitment of a new responsibility for thereuse engineer.3. Identification of the key parameters influencing the environmental impacts of reuse anddevelopment of sensitivity study, allowing a better comprehension of the consequencesof this process and its consideration in design to support to decision making.An experiment based on reinforced concrete demonstration portals frames has enabledcorroboration of these three lines of research by generating missing data in literature. Thispractical analysis of column-beam assembly has generated technical data on the structuralbehavior after reuse, but also environmental data for implementation and deconstruction.This research offers subsequently a methodology based on a chain of tools to enable engineersto design reversible construction assemblies within a reusable structure, to secure the necessaryinformation in the BIM model coupled with physical traceability, to build a bank of materials andto enhance design through a stock of load-bearing elements. The study thus distinguishes"design with a stock" which aims to combine as many available elements as possible, from"design from a stock" which leads to the reuse of 100% of the elements and thus presents a newparadigm for the designer.At the same time, the environmental impacts of the reuse process are studied using a life cycleassessment (LCA). A sensitivity study, based among other things on the number of uses and thelifespan, in comparison to equivalent new constructions, provides a better understanding of theareas of interest of the DfReu. Consideration of criteria specific to the circular economy inbuildings completes the definition of reuse criteria. In the end, environmental studies establishunder which conditions reuse reduces the impact of a building and identify the key parameters.The results obtained are primarily intended for structural engineers but more broadly fordesigners part of the project management: architects, engineers and environmental designoffices, in order to offer and encourage the study of variants anticipating the reusability of newlydesigned buildings. By extension, the results can also be used in projects involving existingbuildings.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 7, 2021 - 6:48:09 PM
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Ingrid Bertin. Conception des bâtiments assurant leur réversibilité, leur déconstruction et leur réemploi, méthodologie de suivi et évaluation environnementale sur les cycles de vie. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PESC1041⟩. ⟨tel-03221179⟩



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