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Étude du déterminisme génétique de l’efficience alimentaire en bovins allaitants en vue d’une prise en compte dans les évaluations génomiques bovines

Abstract : The profitability of beef cattle farms did not improve in recent years despite the genetic selection carried out. The increase of the amount of concentrates provided to animals is partly responsible of this situation. The objective of the thesis is to study the possibility to improve genetically the feed efficiency of beef cattle in a context where the same population must be efficient with different diets. Performance test stations have been used to estimate genetic breeding values of bulls on feed efficiency. However, the diet in stations is different from this used in farms, it is therefore necessary to validate this tool in the context of genetic selection on this trait. Three feed efficiency criteria were used in this thesis: the residual feed intake, the residual gain and the feed conversion efficiency. Estimates of genetic parameters were carried out in three Charolais experimental populations, two composed of young bulls and one of heifers, to observe the genetic relationships with their sires evaluated in performance test stations. The results showed that the genetic relationships between bulls and young bulls were high for all the traits. However with the heifers, the relationships were very weak to zero. This work shows that feed efficiency can be selected from performance test stations for the male population. In addition, feed efficiency was shown to be influenced by the body composition of animals, namely that efficient animals would have a higher protein deposition in the whole body and less maintenance requirements in organs. Association studies (GWAS) have also confirmed the complex determinism of feed efficiency, and biological processes have been highlighted. Studies are still necessary to test the possibility of a genomic evaluation of this trait in the French beef cattle population.
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Sébastien Taussat. Étude du déterminisme génétique de l’efficience alimentaire en bovins allaitants en vue d’une prise en compte dans les évaluations génomiques bovines. Génétique animale. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASA016⟩. ⟨tel-03283952⟩

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