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Le projet de Salagnac : quelle contribution au développement de l’agriculture locale et quels enseignements de portée générale ?

Abstract : Since the mid-twentieth century, Haitian agriculture has been the subject of many national and international interventions to support its development and contribute to the country's food security. Various projects have been implemented but many have had only limited results, due to lack of understanding of the problems faced by farmers and to the gap in recommended techniques.In opposition with this type of intervention, Salagnac project which has started since 1973 in a small rural area in the south of the country aimed to implement an approach that articulated research, training and development, in close collaboration with farmers and with the support of many researchers and agronomists. This project enabled the implementation of a coherent set of interventions - small water tanks and reservoirs, micro-credit, transport infrastructure, support to crop and livestock production. It has led to the spectacular development of the region, based on the market gardening increased production sold in Port-au-Prince market. More than thirty years after its beginnings, Salagnac project continues to bear fruit.While the government highlights the success of this project, this research project proposes to understand the farming transformations thanks to this project and to assess its effects in order to measure its impacts on farmers income and their evolution, social inequalities and environmental conservation. The assessment is based on the evaluation of the gap between the scenario with project and the one which would have prevailed in its absence, built thanks to a comparative approach from other mountainous regions of the country. This research was conducted on the basis of substantial fieldwork, including landscape analysis and 150 in-depth interviews with older and active farmers.In the economic liberalization context of the 1980s, farmers who started cropping the remunerative cabbage culture thanks to the project were encouraged to benefit from this comparative advantage in specializing their farm in market gardening. However, this specialization showed its economic and environmental limits in the 2000s, in an unfavorable macroeconomic context.The development of these high value-added crops which has been led by an increased demand for better paid daily labor than in the rest of the country has increased all farmers’ incomes, including the poorest who have been able to continue farming. This development has also maintained a vibrant rural fabric and improved living conditions in the region. Nevertheless, this development was based on a strong market integration, making these farms particularly vulnerable to the volatility of world agricultural prices. Understanding the circumstances that have led to the success and sustainability of Salagnac project highlights the necessary conditions to bring this type of approach to other regions of the country and contributes, more generally, to enriching the thinking on intervention modalities in the field of agricultural development in Haiti.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 11, 2021 - 6:04:34 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:38:11 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03373995, version 1


Ariane Degroote. Le projet de Salagnac : quelle contribution au développement de l’agriculture locale et quels enseignements de portée générale ?. Economies et finances. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019IAVF0014⟩. ⟨tel-03373995⟩



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