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Construire des immeubles au royaume des maisons La densification des bourgs périurbains franciliens par le logement collectif : modalités, intérêts et limites

Abstract : Gradually, densification has been regarded in public policies as an optimal urban planning model, which asked French communes to strengthen their legislation. At the same time, the peri-urban was the object of critical speeches. However peri-urban is increasingly seen as a mature territory, and its perception has changed, especially because researches like the BIMBY program shown that peri-urban areas can be densifiable.We study another type of densification than the BIMBY, which focused on the densification of individual habitat by individual housing. We are interested in the densification of the Parisian peri-urban, especially of its local centralities — the towns — by the construction of collective housing.Even if peri-urban is mostly seen as the place of the individual housing, a significant part of collective housing remains, and new buildings are built, influenced by the laws SRU and ALUR, and by the SDRIF. We have identified 130 buildings (more than 2800 apartments) in nearly 250 municipalities in the Parisian peri-urban built between 2009 and 2013. We analyzed their architecture, the transformations of the neighborhoods, but also how the governance managed to realize these constructions, breaking with the traditional way of building in these towns. Last but not least, we interrogated almost one hundred inhabitants of these new buildings to understand why they chose to live – and if they chose to live – in an apartment of a peri-urban commune.In peri-urban communes of the Ile-de-France region, densification by collective housing remains complicated (high cost, lack of engineering, local protests). Moreover, densification is not always conducive to architectural and urban quality: the resulting constructions are reflected in a new architectural standard, pastiching, which often flouts its inscription in a local urban and landscape project. Despite these difficulties, which will be explained, we will also show densification achievements in the peri-urban area that have led to an improvement in the quality of life in these towns. We will indeed try to demonstrate the conditions of a high quality densification in the parisian péri-urban.
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Claire Fonticelli. Construire des immeubles au royaume des maisons La densification des bourgs périurbains franciliens par le logement collectif : modalités, intérêts et limites. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0015⟩. ⟨tel-03392392⟩

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