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L’approche systémique à l’échelle de l’exploitation agricole au service de la qualité des eaux souterraines. L’expérience d’une démarche de co-conception avec et par les agriculteurs.

Abstract : Controlling groundwater diffuse pollution induced by agricultural practices has been receiving strong attention in the European Union (EU) for the last 30 years. However, in France, it remains a significant issue from farming activity. In this context, designing scenario that would tackle this issue and would be sustainably implemented by farmers have become major challenges. This research aims at taking into account each farm’s components (cropping system, resources…) and each farmers’ specific strategy to design and foster transition towards groundwater-friendly farming system.First, we studied regulatory measures from Nitrate Directive that do not take into account local pattern. We worked in two case studies, with groundwater quality issues related to nitrates and pesticide pollution: Plaine des Chères and Val de Durance. Farmers located within these two fields, present various farming system and a disparity motivation in changing their practices.Based on semi-directive interviews with 22 French farmers from these two territories, we developed a farm-scale method to assess how they implemented these measures and their suitability with their farming system. The results show that they are mostly not suitable and were actually gave up as soon as the regulation stopped during this research.Considering this first conclusion, we sought to develop a participatory approach that will have greater success in encouraging farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural practices. Our method exclusively involves farmers to co-design more sustainable farming system over the course of individual interviews and collective workshops. The main guidance during this process was farmer empowerment: if farmers are encouraged to take ownership of redesigning, they should be more likely to implement substantial change. They shared diverse and local knowledge, and discussed relevant changes that could help their peers address a given challenge or project. Indeed, the farmers in the test groups implemented some of the recommendation in the months following the co-design process. This participatory approach could also be replicated in different regions and for different environmental challenges (e.g., groundwater quantity, erosion) since the greater goal is to encourage more sustainable farming practices (e.g., conservation tillage, agroecology).
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Annabelle Richard. L’approche systémique à l’échelle de l’exploitation agricole au service de la qualité des eaux souterraines. L’expérience d’une démarche de co-conception avec et par les agriculteurs.. Sciences agricoles. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018IAVF0008⟩. ⟨tel-03392436⟩

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