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Pauvreté, insécurité alimentaire et vulnérabilité des ménages agricoles dans un système d’irrigation à grande échelle : le cas du périmètre irrigué de Bagré au Burkina Faso

Abstract : Large-scale irrigation systems have emerged in Africa as a response to increasing the challenges of seeking food sovereignty and strengthening the livelihoods of people in rural areas. Decades later, the enthusiasm towards these systems is still present, while their real effects are becoming the subject of many controversies. Despite theimprovement they contribute to agricultural production, large irrigated systems generate risks concerning the social, economic, and ecological domains, which question their real impacts on the economic and food situation of the rural populations located in the project areas. This thesis is seeking the answer to the issues related to the impacts of large irrigated systems on beneficiaries by focusing on the specific case of the Bagré irrigation scheme in Burkina Faso. Specifically, it seeks to analyze how the irrigation scheme can contribute to reducing poverty, food insecurity, and the vulnerability of the irrigating households by comparing them to the rainfed households in the surrounding area. To achieve this, we first analyze the resource endowments of different farm household types and assess their state of poverty, economic and food insecurities by comparing economic indicators to usual thresholds and those defined with the communities in a participatory way. Then, we identify and prioritize the risks on the resources, estimate their occurrences as well as their ex-ante impacts on household income and consumption to assess their vulnerability to economic and food insecurities. In addition, the analysis by the economic indicators is confronted with the perception of the participants.Problems related to the sale ofpaddy rice are ranked by the workshop participants as the major constraints. The causes of these difficulties are analyzed, both by an economic reflection on the competitiveness of the local rice (value for money, eating habits, etc.) and by a multi-stakeholder workshop seeking to identify the main causes and to propose improving solutions. A mixed contribution of the irrigation scheme to improving the living conditions of the populations is highlighted: food security has improved thanks to the increase in rice productivity, but poverty remains a concern in the whole area where it affects more than half of the families. The lack of access to land and non-agricultural jobs and the high gap between the observed and expected yields are the main factors hindering the improvement of the living conditions of the poor irrigators. These poor are in permanent economic insecurity due to the high costs of intensive rice production and limited access to credit. They are also more vulnerable than the rainfed households to the economic and food insecurities because of the high risks of accessing to the production factors and the sale of their rice at a stable and profitable price. These results raise questions about the interest of the future extensionsof the irrigation scheme, given the fact that under the current conditions of land compensation, their impacts on the economic situation of the rainfed households (future beneficiaries) would not be significantly positive. Besides, the rainfed populationsexpress fears about new extensions (availability of water downstream). Better coordination and partnership between the stakeholders could reduce the local problems related to the sale of rice, but further analysis at the national level is needed to address the issue connected to the competitiveness of the local rice. Furthermore, the use of pesticides and their impacts on health and ecology, as well as the distribution of land resources, and the possibility of alternative crops are among the important questions to be explored as their results could contribute to the change in the mixed trajectory of the irrigation scheme.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 25, 2021 - 5:39:11 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03402694, version 1

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Abdoulaye Tapsoba. Pauvreté, insécurité alimentaire et vulnérabilité des ménages agricoles dans un système d’irrigation à grande échelle : le cas du périmètre irrigué de Bagré au Burkina Faso. Agriculture, économie et politique. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IAVF0006⟩. ⟨tel-03402694⟩

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