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Semis direct sous couvert végétal sans herbicide : conception, expérimentation et évaluation conjointes d’itinéraires techniques entre praticiens et chercheurs

Abstract : Cover crop-based no-tillage (NT) techniques appear as an innovative solution to manage weeds while limiting soil disturbance and facing economic, sociologic and agro ecologic challenges of the 21st century (Mäeder et Berner, 2012). This technic consists of sowing a cash crop without tillage either under living or terminated cover crop with a roller crimper (Mirsky et al., 2012). This innovation has been developed in North America and NT is emerging in France. Especially, farmers are motivated by NT adoption to improve soil fertility, reduce fuel and herbicides consumption and decrease labor (Soane et al., 2012 ; Casagrande et al., 2015). Cover crop-based NT practice represents a major challenge both in organic farming and conventional farming to reduce tillage and limit and/or replace the use of the Glyphosate causing discussions in Europe (Johnsen et al., 2016). However, high number of difficulties are often reported (cover crop control, weeds management, nitrogen availability etc.) and a system rethinking is required to limit them. In addition, only few references are available on this subject and most of the studies have been conducted in North America (Moyer, 2011). Consequently, concerns reminds on means to adopt the innovation in current farms (equipment, skills, knowledge, technical and organizational choices etc.) and on economic and agronomic benefits provided by cover crop-based NT techniques. This thesis relies on these three major issues and proposes to design viable solutions in current farms integrating cover crop-based NT techniques under European conditions. This thesis project aims especially to consider the farmer’s objectives and constraints at three organizational level (plot, cropping systems, farm) combining both a systemic and an analytic approach.
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Laura Vincent-Caboud. Semis direct sous couvert végétal sans herbicide : conception, expérimentation et évaluation conjointes d’itinéraires techniques entre praticiens et chercheurs. Sciences agricoles. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IAVF0001⟩. ⟨tel-03402744⟩

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