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Mesure et modélisation du bilan hydrologique de dispositifs rustiques de gestion à la source des eaux de ruissellement de chaussées

Abstract : Road runoff is known to be highly contaminated with organic and metallic micropollutants. In order to control the runoff volumes and pollutants generated by the urban area and thus protect the receiving aquatic environments, alternative vegetated systems can be implemented at roadside. They aim to treat or pre-treat stormwater runoff for small rainfall but also to return to a hydrological functioning closer to the natural cycle. Rustic treatment systems such as vegetated filter strips and swales are already widely used in the agricultural sector. However, their application in an urban context or on the roadsides presents several challenges: dimensioning of the system, strong heterogeneity of the soils, presence of infrastructures (road foundations, various networks), constraints of integration in urban planning.The main objective of this thesis is to understand and model the hydrological processes involved in these ecological engineering systems in the urban environment and to analyze the consequences in terms of design. In particular, the aim is to better reproduce the distribution of flows between infiltration, evapotranspiration, drainage, and surface runoff on different time scales. The influence of the different design elements of these devices is assessed under different local contexts (pavement structure, nature of the soil, and subsoil) in order to assist in the selection and design of these systems.The first part of the study consists of an investigation of the uncertainties related to the measurement of soil hydraulic properties on two types of structures with different characteristics, which are two vegetated filter strips and a bioretention swale located along a roadside in the Paris region. This phase allowed the characterization of the horizontal and vertical variability of soil hydrodynamic properties and the assessment of their effects on hydrological modeling. In addition, the uncertainty associated with the measurement of soil moisture content is quantified by calibrating moisture sensors in the laboratory and in situ.The second part consists of evaluating the hydrological performance of these systems. For the heavily equipped bioretention swale, where all inflows and outflows are measured, an experimental evaluation is carried out. Hydrological performance indicators and volume balances are calculated on different time scales. A modeling approach is followed for the second system, the vegetated filter strip. The measurements in this system do not allow the calculation of volume balances, so a long-term modeling approach is applied. The transfer processes in the unsaturated zone are described under the HYDRUS 2D / 3D software coupled with a 1D surface runoff model. This model is validated on the basis of the measured data and then tested under different filter strip configurations.The findings of this thesis provide considerable knowledge on the hydrological performance of roadside stormwater management systems to assist in their selection and design
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 14, 2021 - 10:23:12 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:38:11 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, March 15, 2022 - 6:32:25 PM


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Tala Kanso. Mesure et modélisation du bilan hydrologique de dispositifs rustiques de gestion à la source des eaux de ruissellement de chaussées. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est; École Doctorale des Sciences et de Technologie (Beyrouth), 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021PESC1100⟩. ⟨tel-03478830⟩



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