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Impact du niveau d'apport protéino-glucidique sur l’homéostasie et le contrôle de l’ingestion des protéines et de l’énergie

Abstract : The level of protein intake is very tightly controlled by signals acting on feeding behaviour that aim to achieve and regulate a "target" level of intake, commonly 10-20% of energy intake, to equilibrate the nitrogen balance. However, dietary self-selection studies show that rats, but also other species, with the possibility to separate the control of protein intake from the control of carbohydrate and fat intake consume on average 30% protein. Protein homeostasis does not seem to be the only criterion that regulates the level of protein intake. Some studies suggest that ingesting a high level of protein at the expense of carbohydrates would have positive metabolic effects that would reduce the dependence of the metabolism on insulin, limit weight and fat gain, and reduce the development of metabolic syndromes. The objective of this thesis was to better understand the control mechanisms of protein intake, their interaction with energy control and the consequences of these processes on food intake and body composition regulations. The work performed showed that although a protein level of 15% was sufficient to ensure protein metabolism, it was not sufficient to optimize energy metabolism compared to the level selected by the rats. The selected protein level averaged 30%, and was defended by adjusting to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates provided, particularly by decreasing in proportion to the decrease in the glycemic index of the diets. Our results also suggest that FGF21 plays a role in directing dietary choices toward protein, as rats in dietary self-selection maintain very low plasma FGF21 levels. Finally, FGF21 levels were only regulated by the level of protein intake, and were insensitive to carbohydrate intake.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 16, 2021 - 5:35:23 PM
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Joséphine Gehring. Impact du niveau d'apport protéino-glucidique sur l’homéostasie et le contrôle de l’ingestion des protéines et de l’énergie. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASB045⟩. ⟨tel-03483999⟩

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