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Theses

Simulation quantique de modèles de spins avec des grandes matrices d’atomes de Rydberg

Pascal Scholl 1 
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique Quantique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Single atoms trapped in arrays of optical tweezers and excited to Rydberg states are a promising experimental platform for the quantum simulation of spin models. In this thesis, we first improved the platform by increasing the number of atoms from around forty to two hundred, and by improving the system’s coherence by a factor ten. We then revisited the transverse field Ising model in 2D geometries by exciting coherently more than a hundred atoms from their ground state towards a Rydberg state. The numerical simulations of the system’s evolution are difficult to perform considering the high number of particles, which means that the numerical exploration of the transverse field Ising model is limited. We used this asset to explore with our quantum simulator the model’s features such as quantum phase transitions, or the system’s ground states. This brings the platform one step closer from its original purpose: a new way to explore complex systems for which numerical simulations are hard to perform. We then used another type of interaction between Rydberg atoms to implement new types of spin models. We first implemented a complex-value interaction using the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the dipole-dipole interaction. This interaction models the movement of a charged particle in a magnetic field, and allows to study topological properties such as the quantum Hall effect. We then implemented the Heisenberg model with tunable anisotropy, by combining the resonant dipole-dipole interaction with an external microwave field. This model is known for its description of magnetic materials, but also allows to study phenomena like superconductivity, superfluidity or supersolidity.
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Pascal Scholl. Simulation quantique de modèles de spins avec des grandes matrices d’atomes de Rydberg. Optics [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASP130⟩. ⟨tel-03523082⟩

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